optical packet switching

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A switch is a device that channels incoming data from any of the multiple input ports to any of the output ports. here optical technology is used for this purpose.By the use of this technology, optic fiber transmission system can carry 32-80 wavelengths modulated @ 2.5gbps-10gbps per wavelength this presentation is done my one of my friends named arun.this presentation is uploaded with all his permission.with regards cc

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OPTICAL PACKET SWITCHING

Done by : ARUN JOY R7A11

WHAT IS A SWITCH ?? Device that channels incoming data from any of the multiple input ports to any of the output ports. o

SWITCHING TYPESCIRCUIT SWITCHING PACKET SWITCHING In circuit switching a dedicated path is established for communication. E.g.: telephone networks

o In packet switching, the messages to be transmitted is broken to small PACKETS.

Todays switching networks ROUTING and TRANSMISSION are the two functions required to move packets through networks The router uses the information in the packet-(IP header, Type, Priority) to route the packets from input to output with minimal packet loss

Optic fibers A medium for transmitting information in theform of light pulses along a glass/fiber Also known as LIGHT PIPE Provides greater bandwidth

WAVE LENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (WDM) A technology used to increase the information rate Here multiple signals can traverse through a single strand of optic fiber

USE By the use of this technology, optic fiber transmission system can carry 32-80 wavelengths modulated @ 2.5gbps-10gbps per wavelength

OPTICAL TRANSMISSION MEDIA In MAN, links between the nodes are optical fibers Here packets are in the optical format O-E-O conversion are required at the interface

LIMITATIONS LIMITED PACKET PROCESSING SLOW OPERATION COST AND COMPLEXITY CROSS TALK These limitations degrades the performance of the system affecting the bandwidth

SOLUTION! The solution is OPTICAL PACKET SWITCHING The signals are being processed by means of OPTICAL SWITCH FABRIC

OPTICAL SWITCH FABRIC OPTICAL SIGNALS OPTICAL SIGNALS

SWITCH ARCHITECTUREAn OPS node consists of following components

3. INPUT INTERFACE

5. SWITCHING MATRIX

7. BUFFER

9. OUTPUT INTERFACE

5. ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

1.INPUT INTERFACE Wave length conversion ->conversion of external to internal wavelengths ->identification of the beginning and end of the header and payload Provides synchronization Header processing

CONTROL UNIT Processing routing information Updates header information Forwards header to output interface

SWITCHING MATRIX Optical switching of the payloads according to the commands from the control unit

OUTPUT INTERFACE Provides 3R(reamplification,reshaping,retiming) regeneration Attaches updated header to corresponding optical payload Conversion of internal to external wavelength resynchronization

GENERAL PACKET FORMAT A generic packet format consists of Header Payload Additional GUARD BANDS before and after payload

PACKET HEADER A packet header may comprise of following fields Sync- provides synchronization Source Label-provides source node address Destination Label-provides destination node address Type-type and priority of the carried payload

continued Sequence Number: Packet sequencenumber to reorder packets arriving out of order and guarantee in-order packet delivery

OAM: Operation, Administration, Maintenance HEC: Head Error Correction

OPTICAL SWITCHING TECHNIQUES Two types of optical switching techniques 1.ALL OPTICAL LABEL SWAPPING (AOLS) 2.LIQUID CRYSTAL SWITCHES

ALL OPTICAL LABEL SWAPPING Consists of Optical Core Networks 1.Edge Router 2.Core Router Here Packets can be routed independent of Payload Bit Rate, Coding format ,length etc Can handle IP packets as well as ATM cells

LABEL A Lower Bit Rate (LABEL) is attached to the front of the packet A LABEL contains1.Error checking information 2. Source Information 3. Destination Information 4. Framing and timing information

PROCESS Packets entered through EDGE nodes (source side) is encapsulated with the optical label Header is removed. At internal CORE nodes, the label is optically erased, embedded with a new label The payloads with the label gets routed in the networks At the Edge nodes (destination side) ,the label is Erased back to packet payload Updated header is encapsulated to the payload

All optical label swapping

2.LIQUID CRYSTAL SWITCHES Principle : -when an electric field is applied to liquid crystal, the molecules line up and become opaque The molecules are so thin and straight, will allow light of a particular orientation to pass through the liquid crystal It consists of 2 components 4. CELL 5. DISPLACER

CELL AND DISPLACERCELL: Formed by placing the liquid crystal between 2 plates of glass Glass is coated with oxide materials that conducts electricity The function is to REORIENT the polarized light entering the cell DISPLACER: It is a composite crystal that directs the polarized light leaving the cell

conclusion The new technology regarded as ULTIMATE SOLUTION to bandwidth needs PROVIDING ->IMPROVED EFFICIENCY ->LOW COSTS ->UTILISE DWDM

THANK YOU!!!

QUESTIONS ????

DONE BY ARUN JOY 7TH SEMESTER,DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG, SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLAGE OF ENGINEERING,KADAYIRUPPU.

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