Opportunistic Resource Utilization Networks (Oppnets) for UAV Ad-Hoc Networking

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Opportunistic Resource Utilization Networks (Oppnets) for UAV Ad-Hoc Networking. Phase I Final Review Infoscitex Corporation 25 Feb 2011. Agenda. Project Team Technical Overview Task Summary and Discussion Future Work Conclusions Infoscitex Background. Project Team. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Opportunistic Resource Utilization Networks (Oppnets) for UAV Ad-Hoc NetworkingPhase I Final ReviewInfoscitex Corporation

    25 Feb 2011

  • **AgendaProject TeamTechnical OverviewTask Summary and DiscussionFuture WorkConclusionsInfoscitex Background

  • **Project TeamInfoscitex CorporationPrincipal Investigator: Andrew DeCarloEmail: adecarlo@infoscitex.com / Phone: (781) 890-1338 x289Project Manager: Dr. Sherman Tyler Email: styler@infoscitex.com / Phone: (781) 890-1338 x263

    Subcontractors Western Michigan University: Dr. Leszek LilienPurdue University: Dr. Bharat Bhargava

  • **AgendaProject TeamTechnical OverviewTask Summary and DiscussionFuture WorkConclusionsInfoscitex Background

  • **Problem to be SolvedResource virtualization maximizes distributed application performanceResources allocated and adapted on-the-flyAllows a broad range of distributed computing, networking, and sensing applicationsContent- and context-based data managementService-Oriented Architecture (SOA)Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)Coordinated network security

    Barriers to resource virtualization in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs)MANETs are less structured than traditional networksSpecial challenges result from this lack of structure:Frequent link breakageInconsistent data rateIncompatibility of resourcesTemporary unavailability of needed resources and communication links

  • **The Infoscitex Solution (Oppnets)Opportunistic Resource Utilization Networks (Oppnets) for UAV Ad-Hoc Networking:Novel MANET consisting of an initial seed network that temporarily recruits resources.Oppnets:Allow the construction of highly adaptive, flexible, and maintainable application networksUtilize and enhance applications, even including inflexible, stovepiped, legacy applicationsAdapt and optimize the use of resources on-the-flyEnable and facilitate distributed applicationsVirtualize resources across platforms, allow scalability, and promote dynamic growth

    Oppnets are:Opportunistic resource/capability utilization networksOpportunistic growth networksSpecialized Ad-Hoc Networks/Systems (SAHNS)Oppnets are not:Generic ad-hoc networksMesh networksGrid computing systemsP2P networksOpportunistic connectivity networks

    Oppnets exploit diverse capabilities such as radio spectrum, connectivity, computing power, sensing, actuation, and image recognition

  • **The Oppnet ConceptOppnets recruit and coordinate the capabilities of diverse networks, sensors, and computational resources in a way that optimizes resource utilization and also ensures improved QoS despite intermittent link connectivity. Oppnet links non-Oppnet UCAS links to Carrier

  • **Technical ObjectivesIdentifying Key Use Cases:Identify one or two basic use cases for proof of concept, including any:Mobility modelsHelper networksNecessary resourcesDevelop tactical Oppnets based on use cases

    Developing Tactical Oppnet Capabilities:Implement resource virtualization, network optimization, and network expansion capabilities within scope of use casesEmphasize security, modularity, scalability, SOA support, and QoS improvementTailor Oppnets for X-47B UCAS and other platforms

    Testing and Demonstrating Oppnets:Simulate Oppnets performance in softwareFine-tune the general Oppnet implementation for selected use casesHardware testbed simulation Proof-of-concept demonstration

  • **AgendaProject TeamTechnical OverviewTask Summary and DiscussionFuture WorkConclusionsInfoscitex Background

  • **Phase I Milestone Schedule

    Sheet1

    Base Mo.Option Mo.

    Task1234567O1O2O3

    MilestoneKickoff Meeting

    Task 1Identify Key Use Cases

    Task 2Develop Tactical Oppnet Capabilities

    Task 3Test and Demonstrate Oppnets

    Task 4Program Management and Reporting

    Task O1Prepare for Phase II

    MilestoneInterim Status Reports

    MilestoneFinal Review with Demo

    MilestonePhase I Draft Final Report

    MilestonePhase I Final Report

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • **Task 1: Identify Key Use Cases Use Case Features: Carrier Strike Group (CSG) consisting of carriers, Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), and other air/surface vehiclesX-47B UCAS on carrier acts as a seed OppnetSeed recruits capabilities including:SensingData linksComputationActuation Resource/capability virtualization methods include:Service directory lookupLookup from helper networks service directoriesTrue discovery

  • Oppnet Use Case ExampleSatellites

    Radar ProcessingCarrierMerchant Ships USVsLCSsUnderwater Acoustic ArrayTargetFighterX-47B UCASSeed Oppnet

    **

  • **Task 1: Identify Key Use Cases Helpers 4-7 used to compute statistics in simulation results: The seed Oppnet needs to integrate a radar plot, and requests assistance from LCS1 (Helper 4).Helper 4 is unable to do the integration itself, so it recruits the satellite link (Helper 5) to search for available services.Helper 5 connects to several different radar processing capabilities (across two hops total) that comprise Helper 6.The integrated radar plot returned by Helper 6 comes up empty, so the seed Oppnet truly discovers an F/A-18E fighter flying overhead. The F/A-18E becomes Helper 7, and identifies and localizes the target, allowing the seed Oppnet to send pursuit vehicles after the target.Helpers 4-7 are key to the use caseInvolve scalability, multiple hops, and resource/capability virtualization (Helper 6)Use all three discovery types (service directory lookup, discovery through helpers service directory, true discovery)Improve the UCAS speed and accuracy in identifying and apprehending a fast-moving surface target

  • Use Case BreakdownRadar Plot AnalyzerHelper 6UCASSeed OppnetRadar Plot IntegratorHelper 4AEHF SatellitesHelper 536aF/A-18E Super Hornet,Helper 746182624471929231720212225272830313233343536b3738394041424344454849505152**

  • **Task 2: Develop Tactical Oppnet Capabilities Oppnet CapabilitiesResource/capability virtualization, network optimization, network expansionCapabilities are implemented with an emphasis on:SecurityModularityScalabilitySOA supportQoS improvementPreviously demonstrated in CBRN first-responder applications

  • **Task 2: Develop Tactical Oppnet Capabilities Lookup Subsequence1) look up directory and identify reservist helper2) order to join3) joins and is integrated into Oppnet[Note: We assume for now that all ordered helpers are able to join.]4) order helper to provide (activity) report OR: order forwarding a task/message to helper H and for H's (activity) report 5) helper does its job6) helper sends result report7) receive report from helper OR: receive and forward report8) release helper (i.e., sends the release msg to the helper).

    Discovery Subsequence0) failed look up for reservist helper1) attempt discovery: scan & discovery (are discovered non-reservists Oppnet-enabled or not?)2) ask to join3) agree to join or not; if agreed, joins and is integrated into Oppnet4) ask helper for (activity) report OR: ask for forwarding a task/message to helper H and for H's (activity) report5) helper does its job6) helper sends result report7) receive report from helper OR: receive and forward report8) release helper

  • Sequence of Oppnet Operations

    Oppnet considerations:Must not disrupt critical operationsMust perform risk evaluationMust assure privacy and security**

  • Oppnet Expansion Process**

  • Partial List of Oppnet Virtual Machine PrimitivesCC Nodes**

    Name Functions CTRL_startInitiate OppnetCTRL_endTerminate OppnetCTRL_cmdSend commend to seed nodes

  • Partial List of Primitives for Helper Nodes**

  • Partial List of Primitives for Helper Nodes (cont.)**

  • Partial List of Helpers for Lightweight Nodes**

  • **Task 2: Develop Tactical Oppnet Capabilities Oppnets as an extension of SOASOA limited to lookup via predefined service directories in infrastructureOppnets also provide true discovery

    QoS in OppnetsCommon QoS requirements include:AvailabilityAccessibilityIntegrity PerformanceReliabilitySeed Oppnet itself might not possess all capabilities necessary to meet QoS requirementsPre-registered Reservists will provide the needed capabilitiesOther (discovered) helpers may improve QoS furtherOppnets must invoke and utilize all capabilities in network to meet user-defined QoS requirements (e.g., time-sensitivity)Semantic Web capabilitiesQoS requirements may also assist in helper discovery and selection

  • **Task 3: Test and Demonstrate Oppnets Software SimulationFine-tuning Oppnet implementationProviding information for customizing the implementation per each use caseDemonstrating feasibility

  • **Task 3: Test and Demonstrate Oppnets GOAL: Test the UCAS speed and accuracy in apprehending a fast-moving speedboat without (left) and with (right) Oppnets helpers

  • **Simulation Input Parameters [1] Values < 1 will be considered in future simulation runs.

    VariableValueDescriptionPRNGseed1000The seed used for Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG)AreaMaxX100Maximum value for the x coordinate defining AOR [miles]AreaMaxY100Maximum value for the y coordinate defining AOR [miles]UcasSpeed300Speed of the UCAS [mph]UcasSensorRange10The radius for the circular range of the UCAS sensors [miles]. SpeedboatSpeed90Cruising speed of the speedboat in calm waters (80 knots= approx. 90 mph) [mph]SuperHornetSpeed777Cruising speed of the F/A-18E [mph]FighterSensorRange20The radius for the circular range of the F/A-18E sensors [miles]. OppnetDelayMin3Minimum value for the delay in integrating the F/A-18E helper by UCAS [minutes]OppnetDelayMax66, 33, 22,16,13Set of maximum values for the delay in integrating the F/A-18E helper by UCAS [minutes]ProbSpeedboatDetection1[1] Probability that the speedboat will be detected by UCAS sensors and F/A-18E sensors if it is within their sensor range

  • **Simulation Random Variables [1] By simulation assumption, the yval of the point at which the F/A-18E enters AOR is 0.[2] Before starting to look for F/A-18E as a helper, UCAS asked for help 4 other helpers. Time to ask these 4 helpers and to find out that another helper is needed is the sum of individual times needed for each of these 4 helpers. Each individual time includes time for UCAS to locate and integrate the helper plus time to send the UCAS help request message to the helper plus time needed by the helper to process the help request and reply UCAS, and time for the helpers reply message to reach UCAS. Time for forwarding messages among these helpers must also be added.

    Random Variable Value RangeStatistical Value DistributionDescriptionDetectedSpeedboatPositionxval: 0 - AreaMaxX, yval: 0 - AreaMaxYUniform distributionThe position where an Acoustic Array detects the speedboat is: (xval, yval).FinalSpeedboatPositionxval : 0 - AreaMaxXUniform distributionThe final speedboat position is: (xval, 100)InitialFA18ExPositionxval : 0 - AreaMaxXUniform distributionThe point (at the bottom of AOR) at which the F/A-18E enters the AOR[1] is: (xval, 0).TimeToIntegrateFA18EhelperByUcas tti: 3 MaxTime, where MaxTime {66, 33, 22, 16, 13}Uniform distributionThis is time before UCAS can start using F/A-18E as a helper. It is the sum of the period before UCAS starts looking for F/A-18E[2] plus the period taken to find the F/A-18E helper and complete integrating it.

  • Results: Varying Delay in Integrating Helper for Speedboat Detection (Delays and Success Ratios)**

    Range for Delay in Integrating HelperSuccess Ratio forSeed OppnetSuccess Ratio for Extended Oppnet Time till Seed Oppnet Detects SpeedboatTime till Oppnet Completes Helper Integration (for runs with successful speedboat detection)Time till Extended Oppnet Detects SpeedboatAverage TimeStandardDeviationAverage TimeStandardDeviationAverage TimeStandardDeviationRange 1: [3-66]27%25%33.739.6615.465.9418.756.16Range 2: [3-33]27%49%33.736.9912.695.5815.946.10Range 3: [3-22]27%61%33.736.9910.244.2913.254.72Range 4: [3-16]27%75%33.736.99 8.393.2411.323.66Range 5:[3-13]27%85%33.736.99 7.442.8210.373.33

  • Varying Delay in Integrating Helpervs. Delay in Speedboat Detection**Integration DelayIntegration Delay

  • Varying Delay in Integrating Helpervs. Success Ratios without and with Helper**Integration Delay

  • Results: Varying Helper Density for Speedboat Detection (Delays and Success Ratios)**

  • Varying Helper Density vs. SuccessRatios without and with Helper (Delay Range 1)**

  • Varying Helper Density vs. SuccessRatios without and with Helper (Delay Ranges 2 and 5)**

  • Varying Helper Density vs. Helper Integration Delay and Speedboat Detection Time (Delay Ranges 1 and 5) **

  • Single-Fighter Denial of Help (Delays and Success Ratios)**

    Range for Delay in Integrating HelperSuccess Ratio forSeed OppnetSuccess Ratio for Extended Oppnet Success Ratio for Extended Oppnet denial of help with probability 0.2Success Ratio for Extended Oppnet denial of help with probability 0.6Success Ratio for Extended Oppnet denial of help with probability 0.8Range 1: [3-66]27%25%20%10%5%Range 2: [3-33]27%49%39%19%9%Range 3: [3-22]27%61%51%24%11%Range 4: [3-16]27%75%60%29%13%Range 5:[3-13]27%85%66%32%15%

  • Single-Fighter Denial of Help (Delays and Success Ratios)**

  • Multi-Fighter Denial of Help (Delays and Success Ratios)**

    Range for Delay in Integrating HelperAverage Time till Seed Oppnet Detects SpeedboatAverage Time till Extended Oppnet Detects SpeedboatAverage Time till Extended Oppnet Detects Speedboat denial of help with probability 0.2Average Time till Extended Oppnet Detects Speedboat denial of help with probability 0.6Average Time till Extended Oppnet Detects Speedboat denial of help with probability 0.8Range 1: [3-66]33.7327.2318.75 19.2320.26Range 2: [3-33]33.7322.3815.5715.2716.41Range 3: [3-22]33.7318.7413.3513.2713.44Range 4: [3-16]33.7316.7511.5111.4811.55Range 5:[3-13]33.7315.8210.2810.2610.13

  • Multi-Fighter Denial of Help (Delay Range 1)**

  • Multi-Fighter Denial of Help (Delay Range 2)**

  • Multi-Fighter Denial of Help (Delay Range 5)**

  • Conclusions10-helper use case broken down into 61-interaction simulationService directory lookup, helper directory lookup, and true discovery have all been simulated.The effects of all relevant primitives have been simulated and verified with respect to the use case.True discovery proves to be a very beneficial asset because:Truly-discovered helpers can detect the speedboat in
  • **AgendaProject TeamInfoscitex BackgroundTechnical OverviewTask Summary and DiscussionFuture WorkConclusions

  • Future WorkConsidered Future Extensions:Denial of help: Demonstrate the effects of a helper being unable to help.Less-invasive help mode: Allow helpers (including truly-discovered helpers) to operate without requiring host/human intervention.Introduce effects of detection probability: Vary the detection probability to address different surface conditions.Introduce sensor array coverage areas: Simulate marginal and certain detection by acoustic sensor arrays.Change initial speedboat position.Vary speedboat movement patterns: Change from straight-line motion to random changes in velocity (e.g., evasive actions).Use more random variables for helper integration: Assign random variables to quantify communication/processing...

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