north africa and southwest asia economic geography

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  • North Africa and Southwest AsiaEconomic Geography

  • Natural ResourcesOil is the major resource in this region. Many countries in this region are members of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).OPEC sets the price and production of oil and has members all over the world.

  • Countries With Oil

    Countries with oilCountries that have very little oilSaudi ArabiaIraqIranUAEKuwaitQatarLibyaIsraelTurkeyJordanLebanonSyriaMoroccoAfghanistan

  • Natural ResourcesThere are positive and negative effects from oil revenues. Some countries have used oil money to build infrastructure such as schools, telecommunication systems, and hotels to attract tourists. However, oil fluctuates on the world market so it makes it difficult to plan for the future.

  • Positive and Negative

    Positive/OilNegative/Oil1. Oil is valuable2. Oil money is used to build infrastructure3. People have a high GDP per capitaOil fluctuates on the world marketOil will run out eventually

  • Natural ResourcesThe most important resource in this region is fresh water. These countries need water to irrigate crops. Some countries have major rivers such as Turkey, Iraq, Israel, Syria, and Egypt.Other countries get fresh water by converting salt water from the ocean into fresh water in a process called desalinization. This process is expensive and requires capital investment.

  • Natural ResourcesOther resources that are found in this area are: phosphates, copper, coal, citrus products, and cotton.

  • Economic ActivityPrimary - Resources are gathered (farming, hunting, fishing, timber falling, mining)Secondary - Resources are processed or manufactured into goods.Tertiary - The service industry (distributing, advertising, transportation, government employees, banking, retail sales)

  • Economic ActivityThis region is highly dependant on primary economic activity.Oil drillingAgriculture (People grow foods in irrigated areas along rivers and on the Mediterranean Coast)Pastoralism (Nomadic Herding - People raise herds of goats, sheep, and cattle)

  • Guest WorkersCountries with oil have small populations. The labor shortage is filled by guest workers from south and east Asian countries such as India, Philippines, Pakistan, and Indonesia.

  • AgricultureAgriculture in this region is limited to areas near rivers or areas that can be irrigated. Areas with significant agriculture are:Near the Nile River in EgyptNear the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Turkey and IraqHeavily irrigated areas in Israel near the Jordan River

  • Kibbutz in Israel

  • Aswan High DamThe Aswan High Dam on the Nile River was completed in 1970. The dam was built to:Stop seasonal flooding on the Nile River.Provide hydroelectric power for Egypt.Provide a steady source of water for irrigation.

  • Trade Important to RegionTrade has always been important to this region because it is halfway between Europe and Asia. The Silk Road linked China to EuropeTrade routes crossed the Sahara Desert and linked Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe

  • Contemporary Trade RoutesThis area has many important trade routes or sealanes such as:The Bosporus and Dardanelles connect the Black Sea and the Mediterranean SeaThe Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red SeaThe Strait of Hormuz connects the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean

  • Suez CanalThe Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. The Suez Canal is owned by the Suez Canal Authority, a state owned company.The average toll for a ship passing through the canal is 150,000 dollars.

  • TourismSome countries in this region make money from tourism.People visit Egypt to see the pyramidsPeople visit Jerusalem to see holy sites (Dome of the Rock, Western Wall, Church of the Holy Sepulchre)People visit Mecca (The Hajj)

  • Developed or Developing?This region has a wide range of per capita income and levels of development.

    High GDP Per CapitaLow GDP Per CapitaIsrael - 26,600Saudi Arabia - 19,800UAE - 37,000Qatar - 87,000Kuwait - 55,900Iraq - 3,700Iran - 11,700Lebanon - 10,300Syria - 4,700

  • Developed or Developing?Countries are rated by economic indicators and standards of living. This area has some countries with relatively high standards of living and other countries that are very poor. Analyze the countries on the next slide based on standards of living.

  • Standards of Living

    Country ACountry BPop. Growth Rate3.83%2.18%GDP per capita37,0004,700Literacy Rate77.9%79.6%Life Expectancy75.8970.9Infant Mortality13.1126.78