Nobel Peace Prize - Awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee - Barack Obama was awarded for : 1. his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy 2.

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  • Nobel Peace Prize

    - Awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee- Barack Obama was awarded for :1. his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy 2. his vision of a world without nuclear weapons3. his work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process

    Obama has given people hope for a better futureThe Nobel Peace Prize for 2009

  • Obamas work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process

    Feb 2009:Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

    Mar 2009:Obama announced that the US combat mission in Iraq would end by September 2010

  • Have you ever wondered why are the US troops in Iraq?Mar 2003:

    George Bush announced war against Iraq based on the following reasons:

    Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction which posed a threat to USs security and that of their regional allies2. Iraq's involvement in transnational terrorism Known as the Iraq War

  • 2 Aug 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait17 Jan 1991: US with the involvement of other countries invaded Iraq together (Gulf war)28 Feb 1991: War ended with Iraq accepting terms of resolutionMar 2003: George Bush announced war against IraqFeb 2009: Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

    Mar 2009: Obama announced that the US combat mission in Iraq would end by September 2010

  • Looking at the conflict between 1990-1991, what are some questions you have regarding it or the countries involved?

  • Managing Peace and Security:Regional ConflictIraq & Kuwait

    Causes & ImpactInternational Conflict Transnational Terrorism

    Impact

  • Learning OutcomesAt the end of the lesson, you should be able to: A. Explain the causes of conflict between Iraq & Kuwait: 1. Historical Enmity 2. Economic Problems 3. Oil Production 4. Territorial Disputes B. Attempts to Resolve the Problems Between Iraq & Kuwait

    C. Immediate Causes of Gulf War

  • Do you still remember what you have learnt in Sec 3 SS about conflicts?

    Why do countries go to war?

  • MIDDLE

    EAST

  • The Middle EastLargest group of people living in the Middle East are the Arabs

    Islam is the main religion

    One of the most important oil-producing regions in the world

    Controls a strategic waterway known as the Suez Canal which links Europe to the Middle East and Asia (important trade route)

  • Saudi Arabia

  • Kuwait

  • Iraq

  • Yemen

  • Causes of the Gulf War

    1. Historical Enmity2. Economic Problems 3. Oil Production4. Territorial Disputes

  • 1. Historical EnmityUnder the Ottoman Empire in the pastBecame British colonies and were granted independence from the British in 1961Do you remember what happened the war between South Korea & North Korea?What do you think happened between Iraq & Kuwait after they had gained independence?

  • Iraq refused to recognise Kuwaits independence as it claimed that Kuwait was historically a part of Iraq and governed under the same territory when they were both under Ottoman rule

    Iraq had on several occasions claimed sovereignty over Kuwait and even sent troops to claim Kuwait in 1961

    However Iraq was stopped by British and other Arab nations troops

    1. Historical Enmity (continued)

  • In 1963, Iraq gave up its claim on Kuwait after facing pressure from its Arab neighbours and receiving a large sum of money from KuwaitHowever there were several instances where Iraq used its military power to threaten Kuwait over border disputes1. Historical Enmity (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq never accepted the fact of Kuwaits independence and Kuwaits refusal to give in was seen as defiance and a personal attack on Saddam Hussein. Kuwaits refusal was also a threat toIraqs national interest. Therefore Iraq decided to attack Kuwait.Anything that affects the existence, independence, sovereignty, economic development and territorial control of a country

  • Who is Saddam Hussein?Looking at the cartoon, what kind of person do you think he was? Why do you say so?

  • Who is Saddam Hussein?President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003Always seen himself as a great leader of the Arab worldRuthless: Did not allow anyone to oppose himCaptured by US forces in 2003Convicted of the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqs in 2006Sentenced to death and executed in 2006

  • 2. Economic ProblemsImpact of Iran-Iraq War (1980 to 1988) on Iraq Heavy loss of lives

    Owed about US$80 billion in debts to its neighbours and other countries, such as the US and France (supplied food and war equipment **Kuwait provided Iraq a loan of US$14 billion Reconstruction of Iraq required US$230 billion Prices of basic necessities became very high and people became unhappy with Saddam HusseinBefore the war, Iraq was a prosperous country with about US$35 billion in reserves

  • 2. Economic Problems (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    War with Iran had drained Iraqs economy Therefore Iraq needed to attack Kuwait and gain control over its resources in order to ease the economic hardships in Iraq to appease the people

  • How do you think Iraq can pay off this massive debtand rebuild the country in another way besides Gaining control over Kuwaits resources ?

    By earning more revenue from the sale of oil3. Oil ProductionHowever, oil prices were falling due to over-production by some countriesOPEC had put quotas on the amount of oil that countries can produced to prevent decline in oil pricesHowever Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates ignored the quota setOPEC = Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • 3. Oil Production (continued)What do you think happened when countries ignored the quota set and produced oil well above their assigned limits?

    Oil prices fell Iraq lost revenue (lost US$1 billion from oil sales each time oil price fell by US$1)

  • 3. Oil Production (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as the action of Kuwait & UAE was equivalent to waging an economic war on Iraq (90% of its income came from sale of oil)

    This affected its national interest as this hindered its efforts to repay its debts and rebuild its country

    Therefore it led to Iraqs decision to attack Kuwait

  • 4. Territorial DisputesDo you remember what happened between China & India when India gained its independence from Britain?

    What do you think happened when Iraq & Kuwait gained independence?

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Rumaila oilfield

    As Iraq and Kuwait had inherited their borders from the British, some were not very well-defined

    The unclearly-defined borders between Iraq and Kuwiat had resulted in both sides sharing the profitable Rumaila oilfield

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

    In 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait for stealing oil by drilling for oil from the Iraqi side using slant-drilling technology

    Iraq demanded Kuwait to stop drilling for oil completely and demanded US$2.4 billion in compensation

    Kuwait refused as it claimed that it had only drilled oil from their side of the oilfield

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as Kuwaits refusal to Iraqs demands was seen as defiance and a personal attack on Saddam Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

    Their refusal also affected Iraqs national interest as Kuwait was depleting oil from the Rumaila oilfield on Iraqis side which would affect their oil production

    Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

    Iraq wanted the islands because:

    Kuwait has the potential to block off Iraqs access to the Persian Gulf which would affect Iraqs oil transportation

    They would help it gain access to the open waters of the Persian Gulf which create better transport possibilities for Iraq

    They would enable Iraq to transport oil in greater quantities (Current port, Umm Qasr has shallow waters where big ships cannot dock and has poor port facilities)

  • PersianGulf

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

    Iraq did not accept Kuwaits ownership of these two islands and had attempted to claim ownership of the islands through force in the 1960s and 1970s but failed.

    From 1978, Iraq wanted to lease the islands from Kuwait, but Kuwait refused because it feared this would open the door for further territorial demands from Iraq.

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as Kuwaits refusal to give up the islands was seen as defiance and a personal on Saddam Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

    Kuwaits refusal also affected its national interest as without access to the Persian Gulf, Iraq would find it difficult to export oil which would result in the loss of revenue

    Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait

  • Bubiyan and Warbah Islands

  • Attempts to resolve the problems between Iraq and Kuwait?Mediation by Arab LeagueComplaints made by Iraq against Kuwait over :1.The alleged oil theft over Rumaila oilfield.2.Iraqs request that Kuwait and rest of Arab countries should cancel Iraq wartime debt to them.3.Over- production of oil by Kuwait and UAE (that led to Iraqa economic problems)4. Territorial issues (Bubiyan and Warbah islands)

  • Were these attempts at mediation successful?Had some successes initiallyIraq managed to get some concessions from Kuwait and other countries OPEC countries agreed to increase the price of oil from US$ 18 to US$21 Iraq would earn more from the sale of oilKuwait promised to write off wartime debts and provide additional US$500 million as a loan to IraqPOSITIVE

  • However, Kuwait refused to concede territory to Iraq nor pay for oil drilled from Rumaila oilfield

    IRAQ invaded KUWAIT 2nd August 1990NEGATIVE

  • What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?The negotiations talks between Iraq and Kuwait had been progressing well.Iraqs invasion of Kuwait had come as a surprise move to many.

    What then, were the immediate causes that led to the invasion by Iraq?

  • What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?Saddam Husseins leadershipKuwaits repeated refusal to give in on the territorial issues and Rumaila oil theft were seen as a personal insult to Saddam. Iraqs Official ReasonTo free Kuwait from the ruling government at the request of revolutionaries

  • What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?Political problems

    Hussein had deployed a large number of troops at the border of Kuwait.The soldiers were getting restless.Hussein feared that the soldiers would turn against him if he delayed taking action against Kuwait.

  • What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?Misreading the position of the USSaddam Hussein believed that US was sympathetic to Iraqs problems with Kuwait.

    And therefore would not help Kuwait in the event of an Iraqi invasion.In 1990, a US Ambassador in Iraq declared that "we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts." She also said that the U.S. did not intend "to start an economic war against Iraq".

  • Learning OutcomesAt the end of the lesson, you should be able to explain: Reactions to Iraqs invasion of KuwaitImpact of Gulf WarEffectiveness of UN

  • Reactions to the Iraqi Invasion of KuwaitReactions from:The Arab countriesAmericaUnited Nations (International response)

  • Understanding the Gulf War & its EffectsThe PlayersThe 4 StagesUnderstanding

  • The PlayersIndividual CountriesRegionalInternationalIraqArab League (including Saudi Arabia & Middle East)US & Coalition ForcesUNKuwait

  • The 4 Stages of the Gulf WarStage 1 : Why Iraq invaded Kuwait (Recall)

    Stage 2: When Iraq first invaded Kuwait

    Stage 3: When Iraq was in full-blown invasion

    Stage 4: Review of Gulf War The Effects

  • The Gulf War

    the war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders 1990-1991

  • Timeline of Gulf War 2 August 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait. Saddam Hussein proclaims Kuwait as a province of Iraq.7 August 1990 Operation Desert Shield begins. The first US forces arrive in Saudi Arabia.29 November 1990 UN authorizes any force necessary to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Iraqis are given to 15 January to leave Kuwait.21 January 1991 Congress grants President George H.W. Bush the authority to use military force.15 January 1991 Deadline passes for Iraqi withdrawal.16 January 1991 Air campaign begins against military leadership targets in Kuwait and Iraq (concentrating on Baghdad).

  • Timeline of Gulf War24 February 1991 Desert Storm begins as coalition ground forces drive on Iraqi forces in Kuwait.28 February 1991 After 100 hours, Iraq agrees to a ceasefire. Iraqi forces have retreated from Kuwait. The United States (under the leadership of President George H.W. Bush, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Colin Powell) is satisfied with U.N. objectives and does not push on to Baghdad. Within Iraq, Saddam brutally crushes Shi'ite and Kurdish opposition. 3 March 1991 Iraq accepts conditions for a permanent cease fire.

  • Stage 1: Why Iraq invaded KuwaitCan you recall why Iraq invaded Kuwait?

  • Stage 2: When Iraq first invaded KuwaitRegional Fear of Iraqi Dominancea. With Iraq occupying Kuwait, they control 20% of worlds oil productionb. Iraqi army now at Kuwait Saudi Arabia border Iraq might set a high price for oil to solve its economic problems Create problems for world economy Iraq might invade Saudi Arabia for its resources Saudi Arabia was no match for IraqWhat is the fear?What is the fear?

  • Regional Arab SolutionKuwait appealed to Arab League for help (did not want western help)

    Arab League called upon Iraq to withdraw troops, but not all the Arab countries supported this.

    Why no Western help?Effectiveness of vote?Did not want a return of western imperialismNot effective as some Arab countries had alliances with Iraq

  • International Americas Responseb. Operation Desert Shield launched with a coalition of more than 30 countries providing troops, equipment etca. Responded to Saudi Arabias invitation to help defend their kingdomMain Reason for Response- Cannot allow a ruthless country dominate oil productionEffect if Iraq did have control of oil production???Iraq would have great economic & military power2. Iraq would have the arrogance to intimidate and coerce its neighbours who control the worlds remaining oil reserves

  • International UNs Response UN passed a resolutionDemanding for immediate Iraqi withdrawalCalled for immediate & intensive negotiations between Iraq & KuwaitFroze Kuwaits and Iraqs assets worldwide to stop use of funds by IraqEconomic & Political sanctions: No country to sell Iraq goods, as 90% of Iraqs goods are imported

  • Stage 3: When Iraq was in full-blown invasion

    Country Iraqs Responsea. Initially, Iraq seemed compliant when Arab leaders called for a resolution. Agreed to withdraw from Kuwait, provided a different Kuwaiti government is formed

  • Saddams Actionsb. Once Arab League condemned his actions, Saddam Hussein b...

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