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  • Nobel Peace Prize

    - Awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee- Barack Obama was awarded for :1. his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy 2. his vision of a world without nuclear weapons3. his work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process

    Obama has given people hope for a better futureThe Nobel Peace Prize for 2009

  • Obamas work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process

    Feb 2009:Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

    Mar 2009:Obama announced that the US combat mission in Iraq would end by September 2010

  • Have you ever wondered why are the US troops in Iraq?Mar 2003:

    George Bush announced war against Iraq based on the following reasons:

    Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction which posed a threat to USs security and that of their regional allies2. Iraq's involvement in transnational terrorism Known as the Iraq War

  • 2 Aug 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait17 Jan 1991: US with the involvement of other countries invaded Iraq together (Gulf war)28 Feb 1991: War ended with Iraq accepting terms of resolutionMar 2003: George Bush announced war against IraqFeb 2009: Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

    Mar 2009: Obama announced that the US combat mission in Iraq would end by September 2010

  • Looking at the conflict between 1990-1991, what are some questions you have regarding it or the countries involved?

  • Managing Peace and Security:Regional ConflictIraq & Kuwait

    Causes & ImpactInternational Conflict Transnational Terrorism

    Impact

  • Learning OutcomesAt the end of the lesson, you should be able to: A. Explain the causes of conflict between Iraq & Kuwait: 1. Historical Enmity 2. Economic Problems 3. Oil Production 4. Territorial Disputes B. Attempts to Resolve the Problems Between Iraq & Kuwait

    C. Immediate Causes of Gulf War

  • Do you still remember what you have learnt in Sec 3 SS about conflicts?

    Why do countries go to war?

  • MIDDLE

    EAST

  • The Middle EastLargest group of people living in the Middle East are the Arabs

    Islam is the main religion

    One of the most important oil-producing regions in the world

    Controls a strategic waterway known as the Suez Canal which links Europe to the Middle East and Asia (important trade route)

  • Saudi Arabia

  • Kuwait

  • Iraq

  • Yemen

  • Causes of the Gulf War

    1. Historical Enmity2. Economic Problems 3. Oil Production4. Territorial Disputes

  • 1. Historical EnmityUnder the Ottoman Empire in the pastBecame British colonies and were granted independence from the British in 1961Do you remember what happened the war between South Korea & North Korea?What do you think happened between Iraq & Kuwait after they had gained independence?

  • Iraq refused to recognise Kuwaits independence as it claimed that Kuwait was historically a part of Iraq and governed under the same territory when they were both under Ottoman rule

    Iraq had on several occasions claimed sovereignty over Kuwait and even sent troops to claim Kuwait in 1961

    However Iraq was stopped by British and other Arab nations troops

    1. Historical Enmity (continued)

  • In 1963, Iraq gave up its claim on Kuwait after facing pressure from its Arab neighbours and receiving a large sum of money from KuwaitHowever there were several instances where Iraq used its military power to threaten Kuwait over border disputes1. Historical Enmity (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq never accepted the fact of Kuwaits independence and Kuwaits refusal to give in was seen as defiance and a personal attack on Saddam Hussein. Kuwaits refusal was also a threat toIraqs national interest. Therefore Iraq decided to attack Kuwait.Anything that affects the existence, independence, sovereignty, economic development and territorial control of a country

  • Who is Saddam Hussein?Looking at the cartoon, what kind of person do you think he was? Why do you say so?

  • Who is Saddam Hussein?President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003Always seen himself as a great leader of the Arab worldRuthless: Did not allow anyone to oppose himCaptured by US forces in 2003Convicted of the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqs in 2006Sentenced to death and executed in 2006

  • 2. Economic ProblemsImpact of Iran-Iraq War (1980 to 1988) on Iraq Heavy loss of lives

    Owed about US$80 billion in debts to its neighbours and other countries, such as the US and France (supplied food and war equipment **Kuwait provided Iraq a loan of US$14 billion Reconstruction of Iraq required US$230 billion Prices of basic necessities became very high and people became unhappy with Saddam HusseinBefore the war, Iraq was a prosperous country with about US$35 billion in reserves

  • 2. Economic Problems (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    War with Iran had drained Iraqs economy Therefore Iraq needed to attack Kuwait and gain control over its resources in order to ease the economic hardships in Iraq to appease the people

  • How do you think Iraq can pay off this massive debtand rebuild the country in another way besides Gaining control over Kuwaits resources ?

    By earning more revenue from the sale of oil3. Oil ProductionHowever, oil prices were falling due to over-production by some countriesOPEC had put quotas on the amount of oil that countries can produced to prevent decline in oil pricesHowever Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates ignored the quota setOPEC = Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • 3. Oil Production (continued)What do you think happened when countries ignored the quota set and produced oil well above their assigned limits?

    Oil prices fell Iraq lost revenue (lost US$1 billion from oil sales each time oil price fell by US$1)

  • 3. Oil Production (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as the action of Kuwait & UAE was equivalent to waging an economic war on Iraq (90% of its income came from sale of oil)

    This affected its national interest as this hindered its efforts to repay its debts and rebuild its country

    Therefore it led to Iraqs decision to attack Kuwait

  • 4. Territorial DisputesDo you remember what happened between China & India when India gained its independence from Britain?

    What do you think happened when Iraq & Kuwait gained independence?

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Rumaila oilfield

    As Iraq and Kuwait had inherited their borders from the British, some were not very well-defined

    The unclearly-defined borders between Iraq and Kuwiat had resulted in both sides sharing the profitable Rumaila oilfield

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

    In 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait for stealing oil by drilling for oil from the Iraqi side using slant-drilling technology

    Iraq demanded Kuwait to stop drilling for oil completely and demanded US$2.4 billion in compensation

    Kuwait refused as it claimed that it had only drilled oil from their side of the oilfield

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as Kuwaits refusal to Iraqs demands was seen as defiance and a personal attack on Saddam Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

    Their refusal also affected Iraqs national interest as Kuwait was depleting oil from the Rumaila oilfield on Iraqis side which would affect their oil production

    Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

    Iraq wanted the islands because:

    Kuwait has the potential to block off Iraqs access to the Persian Gulf which would affect Iraqs oil transportation

    They would help it gain access to the open waters of the Persian Gulf which create better transport possibilities for Iraq

    They would enable Iraq to transport oil in greater quantities (Current port, Umm Qasr has shallow waters where big ships cannot dock and has poor port facilities)

  • PersianGulf

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

    Iraq did not accept Kuwaits ownership of these two islands and had attempted to claim ownership of the islands through force in the 1960s and 1970s but failed.

    From 1978, Iraq wanted to lease the islands from Kuwait, but Kuwait refused because it feared this would open the door for further territorial demands from Iraq.

  • 4. Territorial Disputes (continued)How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

    Iraq was unhappy as Kuwaits refusal to give up the islands was seen as defiance and a personal on Saddam Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

    Kuwaits refusal also affected its national interest as without access to the Persian Gulf, Iraq would find it difficult to export oil which would result in the loss of revenue

    Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait

  • Bubiyan and Warbah Islands

  • Attempts to resolve the problems between Iraq and Kuwait?Mediation by Arab LeagueComplaints made by Iraq against Kuwait over :1.The alleged oil theft over Rumaila oilfield.2.Iraqs request that Kuwait and rest of Arab countries should cancel Iraq wartime debt to them.3.Over- production of oil by Kuwait and UAE (that led to Iraqa econo

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