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No-BakeAS WE SEE IT

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  • G a b r i e l e G a l a n t e

    O v i d i o M i c h i l l i

    R u g g e r o M a s p e r o

    No-BakeAS WE SEE IT

    1

  • INDEX

    PREFACE page 11

    1. THE NO BAKE PROCESS page 13

    1.1 Process comPatibility page 13

    2. THE RESINS AND THEIR POLYMERISATION page 15

    2.1. the resin families page 16

    2.1.1. General characteristics page 16

    2.2. the classification of foundry resins page 19

    2.2.1. first GrouP page. 19 Furan resins page 19 Phenol resins and Furan-Phenol resins page 26 urea-Phenol and urea-Furan resins page 27

    2.2.2. second GrouP isocyanates -urethane system page 28 The Three comPonenTs TyPe page 28 The Two soluTions TyPe page 29

    2.2.3. third GrouP alkaline Phenol resins page 30

    2.2.4 resin aGeinG page 32

  • 2.3 additives page 33 siilanes page 33 waTer page 33 iron oxide page 33

    2.4 Physical and chemical checks on resisns page 35 ViscosiTy - densiTy page 36 reFracTiVe index page 36

    3. CATALYSTS AND HARDENERS page 39

    3.1 catalysts page 39

    3.2 hardeners page 42

    3.2.1 esters page 43 The use oF esTers in The alkaline no-Bake sysTem page 43 The Pouring Process page 43 The regeneraTion Process page 44

    4. SODIUM SILICATE page 45

    4.1 the basic PrinciPles of the Process page 45 The silicaTe-esTer reacTion page 45

    4.1.1 settinG times page 46

    4.2 the tyPe of sodium silicate page 47

    4.3 the tyPe of ester page 47

    4.4 additives page 49

    4.5 carryinG out the work page 49

  • 4.5.1 mix PreParation page 49

    4.5.2. mouldinG page 50

    4.6 silicate checks page 50 chemical checks page 51 Physical checks page 51 mechanical checks on TesT Pieces oF Bonded sand page 51

    5. THE SANDS page 55 silica sand page 57 oliVine sand page. 57 chromiTe sand page 57 Zircon sand page 58

    6. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAND MIXTURES page 59

    6.1 sand characteristics page 59 granulomeTry and Fineness index page 59 sPeciFic surFace area oF The grains page 60 moisTure page 61 Fines FracTions page 61 loss on igniTion page 62 The acid demand Value (adV) page 62 The Base demand Value page 62 clay page 63 ooliTe conTaminaTion page 63 TemPeraTure page 63

    6.2 the hardeninG Phases page 64

    6.2.1. the work time page 64

  • 6.2.2. the striP time page 65

    6. 3 mould aGeinG page 66

    6.4 the siGnificance of sand-binder mixtures quality control page 66

    6.5 environmental and hyGiene considerations page 67

    6.6 the comPatibilty of sands, binders and metals page 69

    7. RELEASE AGENTS page 75

    8. PAINTS page 77

    8.1 water based Paints page 77 comPonenTs page 78 Physical requiremenTs page 79

    9. NO-BAKE ADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS page 83 dimensional Precision page 83 Flasks page 83 moulding page 84 The surFace aPPearance oF casTings page 84 core assemBly page 85 residual sTresses page 85 cosTs page 86 casTing qualiTy page 87

    9.1 the no-bake contribution to the reduction of faults due to shrinkaGe in cast iron castinGs page 87

  • 9.1.1 cast iron solidification page 88 The VolumeTric change in casT irons page 89 no-Bake and ducTile iron casTing page 91

    9.2 the contribution of thermal analysis to the evaluation of the tendency of cast irons to shrink page 93

    9.3 mouldinG by Pressure shootinG page 97

    9.3.1 the Process chemistry page 98

    9.3.2. descriPtion of the mould shootinG Plant page 101 The mixer page 101 The moulding PlanT page 101 gassing - Purging page 106 The BuFFer PosiTion page 106 mould sTriPPing page 107 Passing The moulds To The Pouring lines page 107 horiZonTally Poured moulds page 107 VerTically Poured moulds page 107

    9.3.3. the advantaGes of mouldinG with a mould shooter page 108

    9.3.4 the advantaGes of vertical PourinG page 109

    9.3.5. fields of aPPlication page 109

    10. SAND RECLAMATION (REGENERATION) page 111

    10.1 the deGree of reGeneration page 114

  • 11. PATTERN MAKING page 119

    11.1 tyPes of construction page 121

    12. CASTING DESIGN FOR THE NO-BAKE SYSTEM page 125

    12.1 mould striPPinG in the no-bake system examPles of correct castinG desiGn page 125

    APPENDIX definition of no-bake chemical comPounds page 131 definition of no-bake Physical ProPerties page 147

    Glossary page 151

    BIBLIOGRAPHY page 159

  • 7

    CAV. GALANTE GABRIELE

    Gabriele Galante belongs to a family which, in the best traditions of the Luino industrial class, continues to carry out a very significant role.His grandfather founded a construction company and his father started his own foundry where young Gabriele, learnt the basic techniques founding stet, once his studies has been completed.Since 1972, when IMF was founded, he has demonstrated his innate design and entrepreneurial capabilities, through the development of the technology, which is the hall mark of IMF in todays world markets.

    As President of IMF he can offer machines and equipment for the application of proven processes, marked by precision, flexibility, modularity and adaptabi-lity: suitable for a wide variety of operating conditions.His successful commercial strategies have led to expansion abroad, and he is also the President of EPF, the French subsidiary; and President of IMF North America, the USA subsidiary.

    AMAFOND, the Italian Association of Foundry Machinery Makers, elected him as Association President from 1983 to 1987, a period of integration with analo-gous associations, within a wide International context.He followed this success by becoming President of the European Committee of Foundry Materials Producers (CEMAFON) from 1988 to 1991. In this posi-tion he took a broad view and forged connections with similar organisations outside Europe, thus creating wider horizons for exports.

    Today, as a member of the Executive Commission of AMAFOND, he is respon-sible for the development of its representative role within CEMAFON, at a cru-cial moment in the process of industrial globalisation.

  • 8

    No-Bake as we see it - Part One

    DR. OVIDIO MICHILLI

    He was born in S. Valentino (Pescara), on the 9th July 1925.

    In 1943 he joined the chemical laboratory of the Fonderia Ansaldo in Genoa. In 1944 he transferred to the melting departments of the section concerned with cast-iron, light alloys and copper alloys. He contributed on the perfection of the process for the spheroidisation of graphite, through the introduction of magne-sium metal. This process resolved the serious problem of spheroidisation.His innovative approach was a great success both in Italy and abroad.In 1952 he joined the Fonderie Getti Speciali Colombo Giuseppe di Carlo at S. Giorgio Legnano.Under the competent management of the owner, and with the professional capacity of Dr. Michilli, this foundry became highly proficient in the production of special cast-iron castings. The metallurgic techniques employed and their originality, became standards for the industry, both in Italy and abroad.In 1956 he was awarded a degree in Industrial Chemistry at the University of Pisa.In 1980, he started his activity as a consultant, both in Italy and abroad.Characteristics: during his working career, entirely spent in the foundry sector, he has worked with enthusiasm and competence, to progressively free foundry techniques from empiricism.

  • 9

    DR. RUGGERO MASPERO

    He was born at Carimate (Como), on the 4th May 1932.

    He was awarded a degree in Industrial Chemistry at the University of Bologna.Following his military service, he worked in Duesseldorf, Germany, with the Huetteness-Albertus GmbH (at that time Gebrueder Huetteness), until 1972. He was initially a research worker, and later was the manager of the Research and Control Laboratory.After returning to Italy, he directed the Technical Laboratory of the Research and Development sector of the Satef Huettenes Albertus SpA, from 1972 to 1994. In this period he edites several technical publications and was a speaker at many Congresses and Fairs.In 1992 he was awarded the A Dacco prize, for Italian foundry work, following which he addressed the International Congress held at the Hague (1993), giving the official Italian paper.

  • 10

    No-Bake as we see it - Part One

  • 11

    PREFACE

    PREFACE

    In the face of a continuous and increasing pressure to produce quality castings; the foundry technician has a daily need to reduce production costs. He is also faced with a lack of skilled labour. The empirical approach, which nowadays is increasingly being repla-ced by technology, is the uncertainty element still typical of found-ry work.The No-Bake moulding process has made a great contribution to resolving these uncertainties.IMF has been working in the plant sector of No-Bake technology, as a partner of casting foundry technicians, for more than twenty years. This partnership extends from the foundry floor to the technical offices, and has resulted in technical solutions and plants which are widely recognised for their quality.Through this practical guide IMF aims to widen its contribution, by classifying its experiences and by uniting them with the latest spe-cific publications in the field. Through this work IMF also expects to make a significant contribution to the training of foundry techni-cians.The manual has three parts, each contained in a separate volume. They are all easily consulted and are complementary to one ano-ther.The first volume is instructional. It contains the essential basic theo-retical concepts and the more important technical subjects. This volume will be of most interest to foundry engineers, to methods office technicians and to those students who intend to speci