New Orleans and Early jazz

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New Orleans

The Birthplace of Jass

New OrleansA Unique Colonial history.

Coastal city in the Southern state of Louisiana.Was controlled by Spanish and French before being sold to Americans by French in 1801.

Different Cultural MakeupCongo square an area where on Sundays African and patois songs, French quadrilles and African styled drumming were performed. A brass and military band culture. A large Creole or mulatto class who were granted privileges of free men and had access to general society and IMPORTANTLY musical training. Fraternities, secret societies, and clubs. (White and Black) - music groups that performed at all public functions. Picnics, funerals, dances, boating trips.Creole liberties are ended1894 post-civil war legislation withdrew all or most civil rights from the Creoles.Creoles lost their property and were forced to live alongside the darker Negroes.In these mixed areas the finely trained bands of the Creoles and the untutored, raw bands of the Uptown, darker New Orleans Negroes played together.

Common instrumentationTrumpetTromboneClarinetTuba/Acoustic BassBanjoPianoJass is Born - Musical coming togetherThe formal technical training of the Mulatto was combined with the oral blues expression of the darker Negroes.Mulattoes gave blacks training.Mulattoes had to play the rougher blusier type of music to keep work.By the time the first non-marching, instrumental, blues-oriented groups started to appear in numbers, i.e., the "jass" or "dirty" bands, the instrumentation was a pastiche of the brass bands and the lighter quadrille groups. Jass EquationBlues of Darker Skin Negroes + Ragtime by Brass Bands + Technical Instrumental Expertise of Mulattoes = JassLargely InstrumentalUnique musical characteristic of New OrleansCollective ImprovisationTail-gating sound of the trombone. ArtistsArtists: Buddy Bolden, King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton. WorksBaraka, Amiri.Blues People: Negro Music in White America. New York: W. Morrow, 1963. Print.Southern, Eileen.The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1971. Print.Social ChangeThese groups will eventually move to the Urban North initiating the Jazz age. www.stefanwalcott.commusic.culture.music