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DESCRIPTIONWhat Institutions along with its norms, rules and practices affects the behavior of the of the people.
<ul><li>1.New Institutionalism</li></ul> <p>2. Definition of NewInstitutionalism Interplay of the different institutions withinsociety, and how their dynamics, rules andnorms determine the behavior and actions ofindivididuals Comes from (old) institutionalism, which isfocused on state/government and their variouslaws and practices which are applied tocitizens 3. Origins Main points of the institutional approach can already be foundin the writings of Jean-Jacques RousseauHis criticism of Hobbes, Locke, and others for assuming that thebehavior of possessive individuals in a particular historical andsocial context expressed the natural preferences and traits of allhuman beings is an institutionalist claim that behavior andpreferences are not a coincidentRousseau viewed preferences, such as the desire to accumulateproperty, not as universal postulates on which one could found ascientific theory (cont.) 4. of politics but as products of societyits norms and itsinstitutions.Law and custom shaped mens preferences and institutionalizedpower and privilege, thus converting natural inequalities intomore pernicious social inequalities. To discover the true natureof man, untainted by the social order, one would have to imaginemen in a presocial state, stripped of all effects of socialintercourse and even language. To restore the natural freedom ofman under modern conditions, Rousseau proposed the socialcontract. Such a contract would allow men to find a form ofassociation which will defend and protect with the wholecommon force the person and goods of each associate, and inwhich each, while uniting himself with all, may still obeyhimself alone, and remain as free as before. 5. was launched by political scientists March and Olsen in 1984as a reaction to behaviouralism and the growing influence ofrational choice theory. focuses on the way in which institutions embody values andpower relationships defines institutions themselves as an essential variable inpolitical outcomes. 6. March and Olsen(1984): new institutionalism stresses therelative autonomy of political institutions. Institutions areneither a mirror of society (the behavioural critique), normerely the site for individual strategies (as in the rational actorparadigm).Institutions give meaning to interactions and provide thecontext within which interactions take place. 7. Assumptions Three main approaches emerge from theterminological morass: the logic of appropriateness a concern with the weight of past decisionsand processes of automatic government the attempt to marry methodologicalindividualism and institutional design 8. Main approaches Sociological or normative institutionalism emphasizes thecultural context within which organizations function and thevalues with which actors are imbued. Historic institutionalism emphasizes the importance of initialdecisions and choices of venues and introduces notions suchas that of path dependency; traditions; response to structural-functionalism Rational choice institutionalism purports that institutions areonly vested with powers by individuals. Rational choiceinstitutionalism involves more rational choice thaninstitutionalism, the research focus being upon howindividuals can use institutions to maximize their interest.Institutions, appreciated in an instrumental way, can beimportant insofar as they can be designed to limit theconsequences of individual behaviour 9. Normative/Sociological Institutionalism Normative or sociological institutionalism refers to the codes of appropriate behaviour that imbue actors in organisations. Act upon their perceptions of what is the correct code of behaviour; and they will resist changes from within or outside challenge understandings of appropriate behaviour especially when this is linked to the exercise of a specific profession or corps. Actors within organisations are bound by common values, which explains not only their propensity to frustrate change, but also the capacity for organisations to reproduce themselves. Normative institutionalism thus frames institutions in terms of the belief systems of actors, considered as members of a profession/corps/grade, rather than as utility maximising individuals. Its underlying assumption is that individuals within organisations are conservative, fearful of change and resolute in defence of their interests. 10. Historical institutionalism Need to understand the importance of history in general, andthe history of specific policy sectors or public policies inparticular Another is to focus on the sectoral level, and retrace thehistory of specific public policies. This sectoral analysis is that favoured by the historicalinstitutionalist school. Decisions set sectors on a given path,from which a shift is extremely costly in terms pastinvestment. Change can usually only occur in the context of aparadigm shift 11. In the HI approach, the heritage is identified as the principalindependent variable (Rose, Collier notably). Rose (1991)argues strongly that policy choices are limited by past choices.Incumbent governments can not ignore past commitments thatare given substance by complex legal systems and pre-existinginstitutions and actor configurations. The vast bulk of laws in operation at any one time are notthose implemented by the incumbent government. In a similar argument, Weaver speaks of automaticgovernment and doubts the capacity of governments toimplement change.Policy programmes pursue their autonomous developmentirrespective of the activities of governments in power. Thefield of social welfare is especially prone to this type ofanalysis. 12. Rational choice institutionalism RC institutionalism attempts to marry methodologicalindividualism and institutional design (Ostrom) Rational choice focuses on methodological individualism,rather than collective, or middle level aggregates. For RC, to understand institutions we need first and foremostto understand individual interactions, specifically the gamespeople play. Rational Choice institutionalism: a market doctrine? Politicaleconomists refuse to recognize the State, assume individual isan egotistical, self-interested actor Rational choice institutionalism involves more rational choicethan institutionalism The research focus: how to design institutions in aninstrumental way, so that they can be designed to limit theconsequences of utility maximizing individual behaviour 13. Thinkers James MarchKnown for his research on organizations and organizationaldecision making Johan OlsenOne of the developers of the systemic-anarchic perspective oforganizational decision making known as the Garbage CanModel. He is a prominent thinker and writer on a wide varietyof topics, such as new institutionalism and Europeanization 14. Elinor OstromAssociated with the new institutional economics and theresurgence of political economy Richard RoseHe has conducted research on a wide range of topics,including the Northern Ireland conflict, EUenlargement, democratization, elections and voting 15. Critiques New Institutionalism is often contrasted with OldInstitutionalism.-From the point of view of the older institutionalism, newinstitutionalism tries to explain institutional change as merelyanother instance of utility maximization. Old institutionalism,on the contrary, seeks to articulate reasons for institutionalchange in terms of social and political volition-It is often said that new institutionalism is at its weakest whentrying to explain the genesis and transformation of institutions 16. Sources William H. Riker, Implications from the Disequilibrium of Majority Rulefor the Study of Institutions, American Political Science Review 74, no. 2(June 1980): 432-47. Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-MakingProcesses in Administrative Organization, 2d ed. (New York: Macmillan,1957 ) Lynne G. Zucker, The Role of Institutionalism in Cultural Persistence, inPowell and DiMaggio, eds., The New Institutionalism in OrganizationalAnalysis, 83-107 </p>
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