NEED FOR EMERGENCE OF COMMUNITY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF UNORGANISED SERVICE PROVIDERS ... biomedical waste management and so on. ... sweepers, construction labors

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<ul><li><p>377 | P a g e </p><p>NEED FOR EMERGENCE OF COMMUNITY </p><p>LEADERSHIP FOR IMPROVEMENT OF </p><p>UNORGANISED SERVICE PROVIDERS </p><p>Dr.Ashish Khare1, Dr.R.S.Pandit</p><p>2 </p><p>1 Asst. Prof., Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal </p><p>2 Ex professor of Business Management </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p> The literature on Marketing of Services is flooded with theoretical concepts, classification, importance, </p><p>opportunities, strategies and other relevant material, however, a very little or least attention is given on the </p><p>Need for emergence of community leadership among such service providers and Qualitative aspects of </p><p>services for common people in the society. Most of the time, we come across the word Services in our daily </p><p>life, but the qualitative aspects of domestic services depend on the organizational strategies, prevalent laws and </p><p>aptitude of leadership in the organization. This paper will explain community leadership and role of government </p><p>as a community leader for slum development. </p><p>Key Word: Community Leadership, Slum </p><p>City dwellers often depend for many routine services on local administration, i.e. Municipal Corporation, </p><p>Cooperators, the representatives of people in the Corporation and the administrative setup of the concerned </p><p>organization. In its real sense, the services like cleaning of roads, supplying water to the citizens, providing all </p><p>routine services to the common public on 24*7 bases are rendered through work force employed in the </p><p>municipal corporation. </p><p>Conceptually, the Municipal Corporation is seen as Major Service-Provider for all routine services, but </p><p>who are real people behind the back of every type of these services? Under what conditions, these real service-</p><p>providing personnel live. Do they also enjoy all such services? Many more such questions arise. Most of the </p><p>grass-root level personnel face similar hardship, what is often demanded by common citizens and expected from </p><p>the Corporation. Such service providing personnel lives under very unhygienic, unsafe and inhuman living </p><p>environment. Invariably, such people live in slums or slum like conditions. </p><p>The present paper attempts to throw light on all such aspects and attempt to emphasize need for </p><p>emergence of leadership to provide quality services by slum-free environment. </p><p> Community Leadership is being widely used to describe the key and unique value that councils can bring </p><p>to their localities. As the only over-arching locally elected body, councils have a uniquely democratic role </p><p>within the locality. In this capacity they are </p><p>increasingly being asked to perform a visible Community Leadership role, focusing on bringing partners </p><p>together, joining up local services, exercising influence in developing a shared local agenda and high quality </p></li><li><p>378 | P a g e </p><p>local services, engaging with citizens and creating a vision for their localities. So firstly we must have a short </p><p>idea about the leadership concept. </p><p>I. UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP CONCEPT </p><p>1.1 Leadership </p><p>Provides vision, focus, direction, credibility, accountability, guidance, integrity, cooperation, unity. Leadership </p><p>also enables a group to organize and accomplish goals. </p><p>1.2 Definition of Community </p><p> A community is a group of people working, together for a common goal (or interest), with a similar vision to </p><p>unite them. </p><p>1.3 Definition of community leadership </p><p>A person or group of people willing to lead and guide others by defining common goals, listening, and </p><p>understanding concerns stepping up to identify solutions and negotiating for the best of community. They lead </p><p>by inspiring others to get involved in a caring, compassionate, thoughtful manner resulting in community pride </p><p>based on accomplishment. </p><p>Community leadership is different from the classical notion of leadership being about leaders asking, </p><p>persuading and influencing followers ( Sullivan, 2007; p. 142). Community leadership in turn is usually less </p><p>hierarchical (Onyx and Leonard, 2011) and often based on volunteer action (Zanbar and Itzhaky, 2013). </p><p>Community leaders are often informal, non-elected, leaders (Bnit-Gbaffou and Katsaura, 2014). Community </p><p>leadership is not a tightly defined concept (see for example Sullivan, 2007), but is also defined by the </p><p>boundaries of the community within which it operates and community leadership can consist of one individual </p><p>or a group of people. Community leadership has been studied in a range of subject areas, for examples in </p><p>education (e.g. Bukoski et al., 2015 ; Riley, 2012), health (Trapence et al., 2012), local government (Sullivan, </p><p>2007), local politics (Bnit-Gbaffou and Katsaura, 2014) and tourism (Cheuk et al., 2015)1. </p><p>1.4 . WHAT IS SLUM? </p><p>The word slum is often used to describe informal settlements within cities that have inadequate housing and </p><p>miserable living conditions. They are often overcrowded, with many people crammed into very small living </p><p>spaces. </p><p>Slums are not a new phenomenon. They have been a part of the history of almost all cities, particularly during </p><p>the phase of urbanization and industrialization. Slums are generally the only type of settlement affordable and </p><p>accessible to the poor in cities, where the competition for land and profits is intense. The main reason for slum </p><p>proliferation is rapid and non inclusive patterns of urbanization catalyzed by increasing rural migration to urban </p><p>areas. </p><p>Martiskainen Mari (2016), The role of community leadership in the development of grassroots innovations , </p><p>Journal of Environment Innovation and Societal Transitions, Volume 22, March 2017, PP 77-79 </p><p>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0280http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0150http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0340http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0010http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0280http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0015http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0195http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0285http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0280http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0280http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0010http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417#bib0020http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417</p></li><li><p>379 | P a g e </p><p>1.5 According To United Nation Slum Definition: Un- Habitat </p><p>Expert group,s generic definition of slum is A slum is a contigious settlement where the inhabitants are </p><p>characterized as having inadequate housing and basic services. A slum is often not recognized and addressed by </p><p>the public authorities as an integral or equal part of the city. </p><p>II. REASONS OF INCREASE IN NUMBER OF UNORGANISED SECTOR </p><p>The slums are developed at a very fast rate, any larger number in the developing countries rather than in </p><p>developed countries. Thus, the argument that slums developed around the industries is not the whole truth. The </p><p>increase in number of slums or increase in unorganized sector is a major issue in the world. As here we are </p><p>talking about the development of unorganized sector (slum dwellers) with the help of community leadership </p><p>schemes, so we must have a short idea about the unorganized sector. Firstly we should know about the reasons </p><p>beyond the increase in number of slum dwellers or unorganized sector: </p><p>(1) Growth of industrialization </p><p>(2) Loss of fertility in land </p><p>(3) Disintegration of joint family </p><p>III. .OBJECTIVES OF STUDY </p><p>Through this study, an effort is made to understand brighter side of slums, by understanding inherent </p><p>innovativeness in slum-dwellers, which are able to develop shelter on such unmanned land, where, neither the </p><p>government nor the urbane society dream to dwell. The objectives of the present study are formulated to present </p><p>the picture of slums as they exist, the problems of the slum-dwellers, the handicapped in planning for healthy </p><p>and decent urban life, they attempts so far made in ameliorating the situation and humble suggestions. </p><p>The objectives of this study are given below: </p><p>1. To trace the genesis of the growth of slums and factors responsible for development of slums. </p><p>2. To offer potential and emerging trends which leads an intensive annual program for development of slum </p><p>dwellers. </p><p>3. To provide background to develop understanding and stimulating factor for community leadership. </p><p>4. To study various efforts made by the government and other agencies towards eradication of slums and </p><p>rehabilitation of slum dwellers; and </p><p>IV. ROLES OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP ROLE </p><p>(1) To motivate others, </p><p> (2) To identify problems associated with slum dwellers. </p><p> (3) To find the best solution among the alternatives. </p><p>V. CHALLENGES TO COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP AMONG SLUM DWELLERS </p><p>(1) Lack of communication because of language and cultural barriers. </p><p>(2) Lack of resources like time constraints and space for meetings etc. </p><p>(3) Lack of co-operation from public as well as administration. </p><p>(4) Lack of active volunteers among slum dwellers. </p></li><li><p>380 | P a g e </p><p>VI. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AS A COMMUNITY LEADER FOR SLUM </p><p>DEVELOPMENT </p><p>6.1 Slum Clearance And Rehabilitation </p><p>The Slum Clearance Act, 1973 provides for clearance, as well as rehabilitation, several projects and agencies are </p><p>found involved in this task. Although, the M.P. Regulation of use of land Act was passed as early as in 1948, it </p><p>was ineffective in the absence of Town and Country Planning. </p><p>6.2 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewable Mission (Jnnurm) </p><p> It was launched by central government emerged as the pioneering programme in the state of Madhya Pradesh. </p><p>In this programme central government contributes 60 per cent, state government contributes 20 per cent and </p><p>concerned Municipal Corporation contributes 20 per cent for the improvement of urban infrastructure facilities. </p><p>6.3. Role of municipal corporation </p><p>The municipal corporation also work with JNNURM for renewal and renovation works including water supply, </p><p>sanitation, drainage, solid waste management, construction and repair of water source, construction of link </p><p>roads, broadening of existing roads, construction of overpass, building and developing of bus and truck </p><p>terminals, environment decontamination, development of play grounds and community halls, arrangement of </p><p>biomedical waste management and so on. </p><p>6.4 Role of Ngos In Rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers </p><p>In a usual urban scenario, migrated laborers generally get job with small or low-profile organizations such as </p><p>security agencies, waste collection services, construction worker, petty contractors, domestic worker, etc. Slum </p><p>dwellers also find employment as rag pickers, sweepers, construction labors, masons, carpenters, and domestic </p><p>helps etc with the help of these NGOS. </p><p>VII. MEASURES NEED TO BE TAKEN BY COMMUNITY LEADERS </p><p>(1) To initiate with slum development project by educating them. </p><p>(2) Training and facilities to improve their quality of life </p><p>(3) Teaching about health awareness and disease protection </p><p>(4) To ensure active participation of slum dwellers. </p><p>(5) To make the communities self reliant. </p><p>(6) To encourage for running nursery schools and sponsorship programs for their children. </p><p>VIII. CONCLUSION </p><p> At last we can say that at least community leadership programs must be designed to enhance and develop skills </p><p>of community leaders so that they can act as catalyst for creating stronger linkages between slum dwellers and </p><p>government agencies and help them in problem solving approaches. They can search solutions and resources to </p><p>solve the complex problems of them. </p><p>IX. BIBLOIOGRAPHY </p><p>[1] Abrams, Charles, (1970) Slums. In (ed) Desai, A. R. and S. Devadas Pillai Slums and Urbanization, Popular </p><p>Prakashan, Bombay. </p></li><li><p>381 | P a g e </p><p>[2] Agarwal, S., A. Satyavada, S. Kaushik, and R. Kumar, (2007) Urbanization, Urban Poverty and Health of the </p><p>Urban Poor: Status, Challenges and the Way Forward, Demography India, Vol. 36(1): 121-134. </p><p>[3] Agnihotri, Puspa(1994), Poverty Amidst Prosperity: Survey of Slums, New Delhi: M.D Publications Pvt ltd </p><p>[4] Kaldate Sudha Kar &amp; Joshi B. L. (1989), Slums and Housing Problem, Printwell Publishers: Jaipur. </p><p>[5] Government of India, Ministry of Housing and urban poverty Alleviation (2010), Rajiv Awas Yojana-</p><p>Guidelines for slum-free city planning </p><p>[6] Gupta and Mitra (2002); Rural Migrants and labor Segmentation; Micro level Evidence from Delhi </p><p>Slums, Economic and Political weekly, vol (37), no-2. </p><p>[7] Mitra, A (1992) Urban Poverty: a rural spill-over? Indian Economics Review, vol( 27), 403-419. </p><p>[8] Martiskainen Mari (2016), The role of community leadership in the development of grassroots innovations </p><p>, Journal of Environment Innovation and Societal Transitions, Volume 22, March 2017, PP 77-79 </p><p>[9] SCOTT MOORE-what is community leadership created by Scott dodds on Jun 15, 2009 . </p><p>[10] MANOJ NIKAM-national slum development-yuvak pratisthan. </p><p>[11] CANDY SHEEHAM communityleadership (session notes), city of garland neighborhood summit,oct </p><p>24,2009 </p><p>[12] PHILIP KIRK AND ANNA MARIE(2004),39(3):doi:10.1093/cdj/bsh </p><p>[13] ROSY JOSHI-organizational behavior LEADERSHIP </p><p>[14] NATIONAL SLUM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (NSDP) introduced in Eighth five year </p><p>plan(1996-97) http://muda.nic.in/NSDP.html </p><p>[15] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417 </p>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422416300417http://muda.nic.in/NSDP.html</li></ul>