ncea level 1 music theory
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NCEA Level 1 Music Theory External
NCEA Level 1 MusicTheory External
Achievement Standard Music 1.5Demonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scoresExternal, 4 credits
AchievementAchievement with MeritAchievement with ExcellenceDemonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores.Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of conventions used in music scores.Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of conventions used in music scores.
A, M, EDemonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores involves identifying anddescribing musical elements and features used in music scores.Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of conventions used in music scores involvesexplaining musical elements and features used in music scores.Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of conventions used in music scoresinvolves applying musical elements and features used in music scores.
Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of conventions and engage in reading of scores in a range of music styles eg classical, pop/rock, jazz. Scores will contain independent instrumental/vocal parts up to an ensemble consisting of no more than 16 parts.
key signatures up to three sharps and three flats, major and minor keystime signatures, limited to:23464448notation of pitch and rhythm (eg rhythmic groupings; major, minor and perfect intervals)performance directions (eg articulation, tempo indications, dynamics)terms and signsuse of treble, bass, alto, tenor, and percussion clefsinstruments and score layoutchords in root position: limited to I, IV, V, V7, VI using Roman numerals and jazz/rock terminology (eg A, D, E, E7, Fm)texture: limited to monophony, homophony, polyphony, textural densitychord progressions including cadences involving chords I, IV, V, V7, VI onlycompositional devices (eg motif, riff, imitation, sequence)modulation to closely related keystranspositiontransposing instruments (instruments that are notated at a different pitch from their sound): limited to C instruments/voice (piccolo, double bass, bass guitar, guitar, tenor voice), B instruments (clarinet and trumpet/cornet), E instrument (alto saxophone), F instrument (horn)open to closed/closed to open scorestylistic features (eg flattened notes in blues, hammer ons and pull offs in rock music, figured bass in Baroque music)form/structure: limited to verse/chorus, Binary AB, Ternary ABA, 12 Bar Blues, intro, coda/outro, bridge.
Rhythm / MetreLimited to 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 and 6/8 [including C]above time signatures identification and understanding of rhythmic groupings and classifications: simple/compound, duple/triple/quadrupledurations notes, rests, (to semiquaver), ties description of rhythmic feel (e.g. syncopation, swing)
Tied Notes, Dotted Notes, Triplets
time signatures, limited to:23464448
2/4 is also known as simple duple
is also known as simple triple
4/4 is also known as simple quadruple
These are called simple because the beats are divided in 2s6/8 is a little different, its known as compound dupleIt is called compound because the beats are divided in 3s
Anacrusis-incomplete bar at the beginning of the music
The incomplete bar at the beginning of the music will add up to a full bar with the final bar.
Eg 1+3= 4
Straight Beats V.S. Syncopated Beats
This means that the pairs of quavers should be played with the first one slightly longer than the second
Pitch / TonalityLimited to major and minor keys, up to three sharps and three flatsclefs treble, bass, alto C-clef, percussion, and vocal tenor (i.e. treble-octave)key signatures and scalesrecognition of major and minor keys (harmonic and melodic), plus addition of Blue noteskey relationships (scale degrees) tonic, subdominant, dominant, relative major and minorpitch names: tonicleading noteintervals recognition of major, minor and perfect intervals within an octave; lower note can only be the tonic of one of the permitted major keys (i.e B-flat, F, C, G, or D)transposition upwards only, sounding pitchwritten pitch only, limited to instruments in B-flat and F also instruments transposing 8vetranscription from treble clefbass clef, from alto clefother clefs, openclosed score, written pitchsounding pitch (i.e. vocal tenor, double bass, piccolo)
Notation of Pitch Pitch- the highs and lows of the note
CLEFSTreble, Alto, Tenor, Bass, Percussion
Guitar tabs (6 lines in a stave)
IntervalsThe distance between two pitches
Sharps, Flats, Naturals
Tones and Semitones
SCALEStarts and Ends on the Same Note!!!Starting Note= Pitch Name of the Scale!!!Major- sounds happyMinor- natural, harmonic, melodic- sounds sadChromatic- 12 notes in totalPentatonic- 5 notes in total- sounds AsianBlues- 6 notes in total- used in Blues, Rock and Pop
Scale Names- The Technical, Proper way of naming the notes of the scale
Major ScalesRule- T, T, ST, T, T, T, STUsing this rule, we can create a major scale on any pitch we like!
Key SignatureTo allow for the major scale rule to happen in whatever pitch possible, key signatures tells us which notes need to be # or b. The Key signature is placed at the start of the piece, and the # or b will apply to all the notes throughout the piece of music.
http://www.musictheory.net/index.htmlReminder: s key signature is found at the beginning of each stave in a piece of music, just after the clef. It is the short way of writing down all the sharps or flats that will be used in the scale or piece.It is there to help the performer to easily identify which key the music is written in.
Keys & Key Signatures
Key of C= C major/minorKey Note= Scale Starting NoteThe # or b in the key signature does not equal to the key!!!For this level we need to learn major and minor keys up to 3 # & 3b!!!
For Level 1 You Only Need to do up to 3 # & 3bs major + minor keys
Ace the major scale in exam!Clef: check for the given clef or write it inKey signature: name the key signature if it is given, or write it inCheck if the ascending or descending version is required (or both), then write in the eight notes of the scale, starting on the key note (use semibreves)Check the note value required and adjust the semibreves if necessary. Watch the stem direction for minims and crotchets!Check if the accidentals are required, rather than a key signature. If so, write them in using the key signature as a guide and then ease the key signature.
Understand Minor ScalesEvery major scale is related to a specfic minor scale, meaning that they share the same key signature.To find out the related major/minor scales, use the 'Holy Trinity' rule...Majors to minor, go down 3 alphabetMinor to major, go up 3 alphabetAgain, use the C major/A minor as a rule of thumb to help you.
For harmonic minor, always raise the 7th degree of the scale by a semitone.The raised 7th note is not part of the key signature and must always be filled in as an accidental!
Scale/No.12345678A MinABCDEFG#AE Min (F#)EF#GABCD#EB Min (F# C#)BC#DEF#GA#BD Min (Bb)DEFGABbC#DG Min (Bb Eb)GABbCDEbF#G
Filler Harm'MinorTip:Work out the Key Signature firstScale/No.1234567 (sharp me)8A MinE Min B Min D Min G Min
Ace the Harmonic Minor ScaleClef and key signature: check and/or write inCheck if the ascending or descending version is required, then write in the right notes of the scale, starting on the key note.Check the note value required and adjust if necessary. Watch the stem direction for minims and crotchets!Locate the 7th note of the scale and raise it by a semitone!
Scale/No.12345678A MinABCDEF#F naturalG#G naturalAE Min (F#)EF#GABC#C naturalD#D naturalEB Min (F# C#)BC#DEF#G#G naturalA#A naturalBD Min (Bb)DEFGAB naturalB flatC#C naturalDG Min (Bb Eb)GABbCDE naturalE flatF#F naturalG
For melodic minor scale:raise the 6th and 7th degrees of the scale by a semitone when ascending and...Lower the raised 6th and 7th degrees of the scale by a semitone when descending.Remember that the raised and lowered accidentals are not part of the key signature.
Ace the Melodic Minor in ExamThe general procedure for writing scales is applicable to the melodic minor scale, but remember to adjust your 6th and 7th notes!ClefKey SignatureWrite in the notesLocate the 6th and 7th notes of the scaleRaise them by a semitone if ascendingLower them by a semitone if descending (do this only if the ascending version is written first!)Check for accidentals or key signatures and adjust if necessary
Filler Mel'MinorTip:Work out the Key Signature firstScale/No.123456 ( up then down7 (up then down)8A MinE Min B Min D Min G Min
Chromatic Scales=all the semitonessss
Pentatonic Scales=penta= 5= 5 note scale (sounds Asian)
Advanced IntervalsIntervals have 2 things-Quality (major/minor/perfect/augmented/diminished) (p.s. does NOT relate to the major/minor keys/signature ok@@)Quantity (123456789.)
Finding the Interval QualityIn all MAJOR KEYS, intervals are either MAJOR or PERFECT (see below C major example)
And thenPending on the addition of #, b, naturals etc, intervals can become minor/augmented/diminished
Transposing InstrumentsC instruments (dont need to transpose, they see C, they sound CBb instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound Bb (major 2nd lower)Eb instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound Eb (major 6th lower)F instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound F (perfect 5th lower)
Reason for transposing instruments (to screw with your brain no I kid I kid) it evolved from the technical development