Ncea level 1 music theory

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<p>NCEA Level 1 Music Theory External</p> <p>NCEA Level 1 MusicTheory External</p> <p>Achievement Standard Music 1.5Demonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scoresExternal, 4 credits</p> <p>AchievementAchievement with MeritAchievement with ExcellenceDemonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores.Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of conventions used in music scores.Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of conventions used in music scores.</p> <p>A, M, EDemonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores involves identifying anddescribing musical elements and features used in music scores.Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of conventions used in music scores involvesexplaining musical elements and features used in music scores.Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of conventions used in music scoresinvolves applying musical elements and features used in music scores.</p> <p>Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of conventions and engage in reading of scores in a range of music styles eg classical, pop/rock, jazz. Scores will contain independent instrumental/vocal parts up to an ensemble consisting of no more than 16 parts.</p> <p>key signatures up to three sharps and three flats, major and minor keystime signatures, limited to:23464448notation of pitch and rhythm (eg rhythmic groupings; major, minor and perfect intervals)performance directions (eg articulation, tempo indications, dynamics)terms and signsuse of treble, bass, alto, tenor, and percussion clefsinstruments and score layoutchords in root position: limited to I, IV, V, V7, VI using Roman numerals and jazz/rock terminology (eg A, D, E, E7, Fm)texture: limited to monophony, homophony, polyphony, textural densitychord progressions including cadences involving chords I, IV, V, V7, VI onlycompositional devices (eg motif, riff, imitation, sequence)modulation to closely related keystranspositiontransposing instruments (instruments that are notated at a different pitch from their sound): limited to C instruments/voice (piccolo, double bass, bass guitar, guitar, tenor voice), B instruments (clarinet and trumpet/cornet), E instrument (alto saxophone), F instrument (horn)open to closed/closed to open scorestylistic features (eg flattened notes in blues, hammer ons and pull offs in rock music, figured bass in Baroque music)form/structure: limited to verse/chorus, Binary AB, Ternary ABA, 12 Bar Blues, intro, coda/outro, bridge.</p> <p>Rhythm / MetreLimited to 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 and 6/8 [including C]above time signatures identification and understanding of rhythmic groupings and classifications: simple/compound, duple/triple/quadrupledurations notes, rests, (to semiquaver), ties description of rhythmic feel (e.g. syncopation, swing)</p> <p>Tied Notes, Dotted Notes, Triplets</p> <p>time signatures, limited to:23464448</p> <p>2/4 is also known as simple duple</p> <p> is also known as simple triple</p> <p>4/4 is also known as simple quadruple </p> <p>These are called simple because the beats are divided in 2s6/8 is a little different, its known as compound dupleIt is called compound because the beats are divided in 3s</p> <p>Anacrusis-incomplete bar at the beginning of the music</p> <p>The incomplete bar at the beginning of the music will add up to a full bar with the final bar.</p> <p>Eg 1+3= 4</p> <p>Straight Beats V.S. Syncopated Beats</p> <p>This means that the pairs of quavers should be played with the first one slightly longer than the second</p> <p>Cross Rhythm</p> <p>Useful links</p> <p>Pitch / TonalityLimited to major and minor keys, up to three sharps and three flatsclefs treble, bass, alto C-clef, percussion, and vocal tenor (i.e. treble-octave)key signatures and scalesrecognition of major and minor keys (harmonic and melodic), plus addition of Blue noteskey relationships (scale degrees) tonic, subdominant, dominant, relative major and minorpitch names: tonicleading noteintervals recognition of major, minor and perfect intervals within an octave; lower note can only be the tonic of one of the permitted major keys (i.e B-flat, F, C, G, or D)transposition upwards only, sounding pitchwritten pitch only, limited to instruments in B-flat and F also instruments transposing 8vetranscription from treble clefbass clef, from alto clefother clefs, openclosed score, written pitchsounding pitch (i.e. vocal tenor, double bass, piccolo)</p> <p>Notation of Pitch Pitch- the highs and lows of the note</p> <p>CLEFSTreble, Alto, Tenor, Bass, Percussion</p> <p>Guitar tabs (6 lines in a stave)</p> <p>IntervalsThe distance between two pitches</p> <p>Sharps, Flats, Naturals</p> <p>Tones and Semitones</p> <p>SCALEStarts and Ends on the Same Note!!!Starting Note= Pitch Name of the Scale!!!Major- sounds happyMinor- natural, harmonic, melodic- sounds sadChromatic- 12 notes in totalPentatonic- 5 notes in total- sounds AsianBlues- 6 notes in total- used in Blues, Rock and Pop</p> <p>Scale Names- The Technical, Proper way of naming the notes of the scale</p> <p>Major ScalesRule- T, T, ST, T, T, T, STUsing this rule, we can create a major scale on any pitch we like!</p> <p>Key SignatureTo allow for the major scale rule to happen in whatever pitch possible, key signatures tells us which notes need to be # or b. The Key signature is placed at the start of the piece, and the # or b will apply to all the notes throughout the piece of music.</p> <p> s key signature is found at the beginning of each stave in a piece of music, just after the clef. It is the short way of writing down all the sharps or flats that will be used in the scale or piece.It is there to help the performer to easily identify which key the music is written in.</p> <p>Keys &amp; Key Signatures</p> <p>Key of C= C major/minorKey Note= Scale Starting NoteThe # or b in the key signature does not equal to the key!!!For this level we need to learn major and minor keys up to 3 # &amp; 3b!!!</p> <p>For Level 1 You Only Need to do up to 3 # &amp; 3bs major + minor keys</p> <p>Ace the major scale in exam!Clef: check for the given clef or write it inKey signature: name the key signature if it is given, or write it inCheck if the ascending or descending version is required (or both), then write in the eight notes of the scale, starting on the key note (use semibreves)Check the note value required and adjust the semibreves if necessary. Watch the stem direction for minims and crotchets!Check if the accidentals are required, rather than a key signature. If so, write them in using the key signature as a guide and then ease the key signature.</p> <p>Minor Scales</p> <p>Understand Minor ScalesEvery major scale is related to a specfic minor scale, meaning that they share the same key signature.To find out the related major/minor scales, use the 'Holy Trinity' rule...Majors to minor, go down 3 alphabetMinor to major, go up 3 alphabetAgain, use the C major/A minor as a rule of thumb to help you.</p> <p>For harmonic minor, always raise the 7th degree of the scale by a semitone.The raised 7th note is not part of the key signature and must always be filled in as an accidental!</p> <p>Scale/No.12345678A MinABCDEFG#AE Min (F#)EF#GABCD#EB Min (F# C#)BC#DEF#GA#BD Min (Bb)DEFGABbC#DG Min (Bb Eb)GABbCDEbF#G</p> <p>Filler Harm'MinorTip:Work out the Key Signature firstScale/No.1234567 (sharp me)8A MinE Min B Min D Min G Min </p> <p>Ace the Harmonic Minor ScaleClef and key signature: check and/or write inCheck if the ascending or descending version is required, then write in the right notes of the scale, starting on the key note.Check the note value required and adjust if necessary. Watch the stem direction for minims and crotchets!Locate the 7th note of the scale and raise it by a semitone!</p> <p>Scale/No.12345678A MinABCDEF#F naturalG#G naturalAE Min (F#)EF#GABC#C naturalD#D naturalEB Min (F# C#)BC#DEF#G#G naturalA#A naturalBD Min (Bb)DEFGAB naturalB flatC#C naturalDG Min (Bb Eb)GABbCDE naturalE flatF#F naturalG</p> <p>For melodic minor scale:raise the 6th and 7th degrees of the scale by a semitone when ascending and...Lower the raised 6th and 7th degrees of the scale by a semitone when descending.Remember that the raised and lowered accidentals are not part of the key signature.</p> <p>Ace the Melodic Minor in ExamThe general procedure for writing scales is applicable to the melodic minor scale, but remember to adjust your 6th and 7th notes!ClefKey SignatureWrite in the notesLocate the 6th and 7th notes of the scaleRaise them by a semitone if ascendingLower them by a semitone if descending (do this only if the ascending version is written first!)Check for accidentals or key signatures and adjust if necessary</p> <p>Filler Mel'MinorTip:Work out the Key Signature firstScale/No.123456 ( up then down7 (up then down)8A MinE Min B Min D Min G Min </p> <p>Chromatic Scales=all the semitonessss</p> <p>Pentatonic Scales=penta= 5= 5 note scale (sounds Asian)</p> <p>Blues Scale</p> <p>Advanced IntervalsIntervals have 2 things-Quality (major/minor/perfect/augmented/diminished) (p.s. does NOT relate to the major/minor keys/signature ok@@)Quantity (123456789.)</p> <p>Finding the Interval QualityIn all MAJOR KEYS, intervals are either MAJOR or PERFECT (see below C major example)</p> <p>And thenPending on the addition of #, b, naturals etc, intervals can become minor/augmented/diminished</p> <p>Transposing InstrumentsC instruments (dont need to transpose, they see C, they sound CBb instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound Bb (major 2nd lower)Eb instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound Eb (major 6th lower)F instruments, transposing, they see C, they sound F (perfect 5th lower)</p> <p>Reason for transposing instruments (to screw with your brain no I kid I kid) it evolved from the technical development of the wind/brass instruments throughout history, some things just got stuck and we worked around them to fit our music.</p> <p>How to TransposeCheck key signature (use major key chart from Circle of 5th)Bb up a major 2nd is CAnd just move all the other notes up 1 (so that the interval becomes major 2nd automaticallyWith any accidentals just double check the semitones etc no biggie</p> <p>Transpose a key signature in the SAME WAY that you transpose a note.</p> <p>There is nothing special about transposing a key signature, but many candidates struggle with this task! Key signatures are transposed in the same way as notes. The original key is G major. Lets say you have to transpose up a perfect 5th. The note a perfect 5th above G is D, so the new key signature is D major.It doesnt matter whether the piece is major or minor, the result will be the same. If we assume this is actually E minor, then a 5th above E will produce B minor, which also has two sharps.</p> <p>When writing SATB parts, make sure the note STEMS are written the right way up. </p> <p>In open score (4 staves) the stems point up or downdepending on their position on the stave.In a short score (on 2 staves) the stems point up or downdepending on the part.The circled notes here show where the stems need to have their positions changed when you rewrite the music.</p> <p>Vocal Tenor Clef (is written an octave above they would sound, so when you transcribe vocal tenor to normal bass clef, put it down an octave</p> <p>HarmonyLimited to chords I, IV, V, V7, and VI, in major and minor keys, in root position onlychords identification of individual chords using Roman numerals and jazz / rock notationchord progressions identification of cadences (perfect, plagal, imperfect I-V and IV-V only, interrupted)chords notation of individual chordsmodulation identification of modulation (via perfect cadence) to related keys (subdominant, dominant, relative major and minor)</p> <p>ID a chord</p> <p>List all the notes vertically (A, E, C#), Put it in a ROOT positon (A, C#, E)The root note is the name (A chord)</p> <p>Minor Chords have m after the letter, plus the small letter roman numerals i</p> <p>Roman Numerals are the I, ii, iii etc they are usually BELOW the stave</p> <p>Jazz Rock are the C, Dm, Em etc they are usually ABOVE the stave</p> <p>Intervals between the Different Kinds of Chords</p> <p>Cadences Two chords at the end of a phrase (like a comma or full stop)</p> <p>ID a CadenceFind out the chords in the vertical fashion (as earlier mentioned)Find out the keys and its scale degree etc, match them up, voila~ </p> <p>Modulation Just means change of key (which usually means change of mood)</p> <p>You can tell a piece of music has modulated (change of key) by Accidentals (extra # or b or natural signs in the music that is not usually there)Actual change of key signature (duh)When modulation occurs, it goes to the familiar, hence, there will be a chord that the old key and new (modulated) key share, that will be used as pivot chord, to modulate a piece of music.</p> <p>Common Modulation Pathway</p> <p>InstrumentationLimited to scores of no more than 16 instruments.Limited to common orchestral and jazz / rock instruments, and common voice typesscore layout recognition of family / instrument order, English names</p> <p>Woodwind in this orderFluteOboeClarinetBassoonBrass in this orderTrumpetTromboneTimpaniStrings in this orderViolinViolaCelloBass</p> <p>Concert Band Score Layout</p> <p>FluteOboeBassoon</p> <p>ClarinetBass Clarinet</p> <p>Alto SaxTenor SaxBari Sax</p> <p>TrumpetHornTromboneBaritoneTuba</p> <p>MalletsPercussion/Timpani</p> <p>SlidesIn short, a slide is when you go from one note to another by keeping contact with the string the whole time</p> <p>BendsNormally when you fret a note, you push it straight down on the fingerboard. When you push or pull a string up or down, you arebendingthe string. This causes the fretted note to go sharp. Depending on how much you bend the string, you can change the note up to a step and a half higher than the original.</p> <p>Performance Directions- 14/3/2013Articulation- How you play the note</p> <p>Tempo Indication-Tells us how fast or slow to play a piece of music</p> <p>BPM- a.k.a. beats per minute, as shown on the score with the note value equals to number sign at the start of the music</p> <p>Dynamics-How Loud or Soft, and the Gradual Changes in volume</p> <p>Italian Phrasing TermsitalianabbreviationmeaningcantabileIn a singing stylelegatosmoothlystaccatoShort and detached</p> <p>Italian Terms: Misc.Italian abbreviationmeaningDa capoDCFrom the beginningDal segnoDSFrom the signfineThe endmezzomhalfmoderatomoderatelypocoA little</p> <p>Texturetextural features e.g.monophonic homophonicpolyphonic melody and accompaniment, layering (e.g. background, foreground) textural density</p> <p>TextureThe use of instrument/s and the combination of instruments within a piece of music. The thin/thickness of sound.</p> <p>Form &amp; Structure Form / StructureLimited to identification and supporting evidence of:introductionAB / binaryABA / ternaryversechorus12-bar bluesbridgeoutro / coda</p> <p>Theme and Variations</p> <p>In jazz and blues, a blue note (also "worried" note[1]) is a note thatfor expressive purposesis sung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard. Typically the alteration is between a quartertone and a semitone, but this varies amo...</p>


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