Namibia Protected Landscapes Proposal to GEF   Web viewNAMIBIA Protected Landscape Conservation Areas…

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<p>Namibia Protected Landscapes Proposal to GEF</p> <p>PROJECT DOCUMENT</p> <p>Republic of Namibia</p> <p>United Nations Development Programme</p> <p>Global Environment Facility</p> <p>NAMIBIA Protected Landscape Conservation Areas Initiative (NAM-PLACE)</p> <p>PIMS No: 4173 Award ID: 00059705 and Project ID 00074796</p> <p>Brief Description: </p> <p>Namibia has a large biodiversity endowment, which is of global significance. Although predominantly a semi arid country, Namibia contains a remarkable variety of ecosystems, ranging from hyper-arid deserts with less than 10mm of rainfall to subtropical wetlands and savannas receiving over 600mm of precipitation per annum. Four major terrestrial biomes exist, namely: Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert and Tree and Shrub Savannah. On a finer scale, 29 different vegetation types are currently recognised, many of which are wholly unique to Namibia or to the southern African sub continent. These biomes are storehouses of high species richness: the country harbours 4,000 species and subspecies of higher plants and 658 species of birds have been recorded, of which approximately 30% is migrant. 217 species of mammals are found including unique arid varieties of desert-adapted rhino and elephant. Finally, the herpetofauna and invertebrate fauna display high diversity and endemism quotients. </p> <p>The proposed project is designed to lift the barriers to establishment of a large scale network of protected landscapes and in doing so address threats to habitat and species loss on a landscape level approach, ensuring greater responsiveness to variability and seasonality issues around climate change. The project will directly bring an additional 15,550 ha of land under PA collaborative management arrangements designed to conserve biodiversity, including unprotected lands by establishing five Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCA). PLCAs will first and foremost be managed for the full suite of biodiversity and landscape values, including ecosystem services (which are better managed at landscape level), also for ecosystem functioning, also performing better at landscape level, for sustainable land management and for economic performance. </p> <p>The project will comprise three complementary components which will be cost shared by the GEF and co-financing. Each addresses a different barrier and has discrete outcomes. Component One will entail the development of a framework for the formalisation of existing protected landscape collaborative management arrangements as well as the creation of national level best practices guidelines for PLCA establishment developed based on, but improving, existing adaptive management arrangements. Component Two will entail the development of strategic plans approved for each PLCA as well as management and work plans for each individual landholding (e.g. conservancy, private farm, etc.) forming part of a PLCA in place. Component Three will entail developing the crucial economical sustainability aspect of PLCA management. The project is designed to generate global and national benefits through protecting globally important ecosystems. This will protect the existence values, option values and future use values enjoyed by the global community and national stakeholders that might otherwise be forfeited, should the PA estate fail to provide an effective buffer against anthropogenic threats prevalent at the landscape level. </p> <p>The project is likely to run through two consecutive UNDAFs because the current UNDAF is extended to 2012 and in 2013 Namibia is likely to have a new UNDAF.</p> <p>1.1 Table of Contents</p> <p>31.1Table of Contents</p> <p>1.2Tables6</p> <p>1.3Figures6</p> <p>1.4Abbreviations and Acronyms7</p> <p>PART IA: Situational Analysis12</p> <p>1.1Biophysical Context12</p> <p>Country Situation12</p> <p>Climate and Water12</p> <p>Climate Change14</p> <p>Biodiversity of Namibia15</p> <p>Protected Areas in Namibia18</p> <p>1.2Socio-Economic Context23</p> <p>Namibian National Context23</p> <p>Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change27</p> <p>Growth of Tourism27</p> <p>Hunting and Fishing Tourism28</p> <p>Venison Production29</p> <p>1.3Policy and Legislative Context30</p> <p>1.4Institutional and Governance Context34</p> <p>Ministerial Level Governance34</p> <p>Communal Conservancies35</p> <p>Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs)35</p> <p>The Private Sector35</p> <p>PART IB: Baseline Course of Action36</p> <p>1.5Threats to Namibias Biodiversity36</p> <p>National Level Threats36</p> <p>1.6Root Cause Analysis37</p> <p>Shortcomings and gaps in the planning, policy and legal framework38</p> <p>Poor Integration of PAs and Landscape Management40</p> <p>Incomplete PA Network Coverage41</p> <p>Limitations with PA Infrastructure and Equipment41</p> <p>Human and Institutional Resource Deficit for Effective Management42</p> <p>Undervaluation of the natural resource base both within and outside the PAs42</p> <p>Insufficient PA Financing Systems and Access to Markets43</p> <p>1.7Solutions to Threats and Root Causes44</p> <p>Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas44</p> <p>Adaptive Collaborative Management of PLCAs46</p> <p>Incentives and Market Transformation46</p> <p>1.8Barriers to the Conservation of Biodiversity48</p> <p>Absence of or Limitations in Developing Partnerships for Landscape Management48</p> <p>Inadequate Governance Framework for Landscape Level Management49</p> <p>Insufficient Focus on Market Transformation and Incentive Measures:49</p> <p>PART II: Project Strategy50</p> <p>1.9Project Rationale and Policy Conformity50</p> <p>1.10Project Goal, Objective, Outcome, Components and Outputs51</p> <p>Component 1. Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs)52</p> <p>Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs53</p> <p>Component 3: Incentives and Market Transformation53</p> <p>1.11Project Focal Landscapes53</p> <p>Mudumu Landscape (ML)54</p> <p>Greater Waterberg Landscape (GWL)55</p> <p>Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape (GSNL)56</p> <p>Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape (GFRCL)57</p> <p>Windhoek Green Belt Landscape (WGBL)58</p> <p>1.12Project Risks and Assumptions59</p> <p>1.13Alternative Strategies Considered60</p> <p>1.14Country Ownership and Eligibility61</p> <p>1.15Program Designation and Conformity62</p> <p>The Fit with GEF Focal Area Strategy62</p> <p>Linkages to UNDP Country Programme63</p> <p>Linkages with GEF Financed Projects64</p> <p>1.16Sustainability66</p> <p>Social sustainability66</p> <p>Economic sustainability67</p> <p>1.17Climate Change Adaptation71</p> <p>1.18Replication Strategy73</p> <p>PART III: Management Arrangements76</p> <p>1.19Project Management &amp; Implementation76</p> <p>Execution Modality.76</p> <p>Implementation Modality.76</p> <p>Project Steering Committee77</p> <p>Project Advisory Committee78</p> <p>National Level Project Management78</p> <p>Site Level Project Management79</p> <p>Project components.79</p> <p>Inception workshop79</p> <p>Technical Assistance80</p> <p>Funds flow80</p> <p>Public involvement Plan80</p> <p>Reporting80</p> <p>Legal Context81</p> <p>Audit Requirement81</p> <p>PART IV: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan82</p> <p>1.20Project Reporting83</p> <p>1.21Independent Evaluations84</p> <p>PART V: Incremental Logic85</p> <p>1.22Baseline Course of Action85</p> <p>Summary of Baseline Situation85</p> <p>Baseline Situation Development of Protected Areas on a Landscape Level86</p> <p>Baseline Situation Developing Collaborative Governance Arrangements86</p> <p>Baseline Situation Creating Incentives for Market Transformation86</p> <p>1.23GEF Alternative: Expected Global and National Benefits86</p> <p>Global Benefits88</p> <p>National Benefits88</p> <p>1.24Co-Financing91</p> <p>Total Government of Namibia co-financing is USD 14,000,00092</p> <p>Total Private Sector co-financing is USD 883,00092</p> <p>Total United Nations Development Programme co-financing is USD 100,00092</p> <p>Total Bilateral Aid Agency co-financing is USD 17,000,00092</p> <p>1.25Cost Effectiveness92</p> <p>PART VII: Project Results Framework96</p> <p>PART VIII: Project Total Budget111</p> <p>1.26Co-Financing summary114</p> <p>1.27Budget Notes115</p> <p>Component 1: Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs).115</p> <p>Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs.116</p> <p>Component 3 Incentives and Market Transformation.117</p> <p>Project Management: Ensures effective project administration and coordination have enabled timely and efficient implementation of project activities.118</p> <p>ANNEX I: Additional Information119</p> <p>ANNEX II: Stakeholder Analysis120</p> <p>1.28Ministerial Level Stakeholders120</p> <p>Ministry of Environment and Tourism120</p> <p>MET Directorate of Parks and Wildlife Management (DPWM):121</p> <p>MET Directorate of Environmental Affairs (DEA)122</p> <p>MET Directorate of Tourism (DoT)123</p> <p>MET Directorate of Scientific Services (DSS)124</p> <p>MET Directorate of Administration and Support Services (DASS)125</p> <p>Ministry of Lands and Resettlement (MLR)125</p> <p>Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD)126</p> <p>Ministry of Works and Transport (MWT)127</p> <p>Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry (MAWF)127</p> <p>Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR)127</p> <p>Ministry of Mines and Energies (MME)127</p> <p>1.29Local Authorities128</p> <p>1.30Communal Conservancies128</p> <p>1.31Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs)130</p> <p>1.32Municipal Authorities131</p> <p>1.33The Private Sector132</p> <p>1.34Protected Landscape Level Stakeholders132</p> <p>Mudumu Landscape Stakeholders132</p> <p>Greater Waterberg Landscape Stakeholders133</p> <p>Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Stakeholders133</p> <p>Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Stakeholders133</p> <p>Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Stakeholders133</p> <p>1.35Stakeholder Involvement Plan134</p> <p>Introduction134</p> <p>Goal and Objectives for Stakeholder Involvement134</p> <p>Principles of Stakeholder Participation134</p> <p>Long-term Stakeholder Participation135</p> <p>ANNEX III: LANDSCAPE SITUATION136</p> <p>1.36Overview136</p> <p>1.37Biophysical Context on a Landscape Level136</p> <p>The Mudumu Landscape Biophysical Context136</p> <p>The Greater Waterberg Landscape Biophysical Context138</p> <p>The Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Biophysical Context140</p> <p>The Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Biophysical Context142</p> <p>The Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Biophysical Context145</p> <p>1.38Socio-Economic Context on a Landscape Level147</p> <p>The Mudumu Landscape Socio-Economic Context147</p> <p>The Greater Waterberg Landscape Socio-Economic Context151</p> <p>The Greater Sossuslvlei Landscape Socio-Economic Context152</p> <p>The Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape Socio-Economic Context153</p> <p>The Windhoek Green Belt Landscape Socio-Economic Context157</p> <p>1.39Threats Analysis on a Landscape Level158</p> <p>Threats to Biodiversity in the Mudumu Landscape158</p> <p>Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Waterberg Landscape158</p> <p>Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape158</p> <p>Threats to Biodiversity in the Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape159</p> <p>Threats to Biodiversity in Windhoek Green Belt Landscape159</p> <p>ANNEX IV: LAND MANAGEMENT ISSUES161</p> <p>1.40National Land Tenure Status161</p> <p>1.41National Land Management Context162</p> <p>1.42Protected Landscapes Land Management Context163</p> <p>The Mudumu Landscape163</p> <p>The Greater Waterberg Landscape164</p> <p>The Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape165</p> <p>The Greater Fish River Landscape166</p> <p>The Windhoek Greenbelt Landscape168</p> <p>ANNEX V: LESSONS ON CERTIFICATION169</p> <p>1.43The Wildlife Cheetah-friendly Beef Initiative169</p> <p>1.44The BUSHBLOCK Concept170</p> <p>ANNEX VI: BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY172</p> <p>SIGNATURE PAGE174</p> <p>1.2 Tables</p> <p>12Table 1.Perennial Rivers in Namibia</p> <p>Table 2.Biomes and vegetation types of Namibia17</p> <p>Table 3.Percentages of Namibias total surface area within the conservation network18</p> <p>Table 4.Summary of Namibian State-owned Protected Areas21</p> <p>Table 5.Population by region in Namibia24</p> <p>Table 6.Major land uses and distribution in Namibia25</p> <p>Table 7.Number of tourism arrivals to Namibia between 2002-200727</p> <p>Table 8.Visitor numbers and revenues to PAs in PLCAs in 200328</p> <p>Table 9.Threats rated by State PA (out of 10)36</p> <p>Table 10.Analysis of threats by intensity37</p> <p>Table 11.Size of Existing State PAs with Expected Gains from PLCA Additions54</p> <p>Table 12.Risk Analysis59</p> <p>Table 13.Project Contribution to BD-1 Indicators62</p> <p>Table 14.Status of governance and management arrangements in the proposed PLCAs67</p> <p>Table 15.Start up costs for PLCAs at US$156 to start and US$ 150 per year afterwards68</p> <p>Table 16.Projected PLCA Costs and Benefits from Tourism &amp; Hunting based on 1996 Data70</p> <p>Table 17.Tourism returns per km2 &amp; Cost to manage Namibian PAs70</p> <p>Table 18.Climate change adaptation implementation action plan.72</p> <p>Table 19.Potential Sources of Funding to Wildlife Sector apart from Government74</p> <p>Table 20.Estimated net value from wildlife-related enterprises (US$ 000, 1996)74</p> <p>Table 21.Replication Strategy by Component75</p> <p>Table 22.Summary of Global and National Benefits87</p> <p>Table 23.Baseline Tourism Revenue91</p> <p>Table 24.Scenario 1 Tourism Revenue91</p> <p>Table 25.Scenario 2 Tourism Revenue91</p> <p>Table 26.Cost effectiveness strategies by project outcome94</p> <p>Table 27.Communal conservancies within the Greater Fish River Conservation landscape166</p> <p>1.3 Figures</p> <p>13Figure 1.Annual rainfall profile for Namibia</p> <p>Figure 2.Annual temperature profile for Namibia14</p> <p>Figure 3.Biomes within Namibia16</p> <p>Figure 4.Protected Areas in Namibia20</p> <p>Figure 5.Population distribution in Namibia25</p> <p>Figure 6.Mudumu Landscape55</p> <p>Figure 7.The Greater Waterberg Landscape56</p> <p>Figure 8.The Greater Sossuvlei-Namib Landscape57</p> <p>Figure 9.The Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape58</p> <p>Figure 10.Windhoek Green Belt Landscape59</p> <p>Figure 11.Overview of PLCA Project Coordination Unit (PCU)77</p> <p>Figure 12.Ai-Ais Hot Springs Game Park Land Use Zoning156</p> <p>Figure 13.Land Use in Namibia161</p> <p>Figure 14.Mammal Diversity in Namibia172</p> <p>Figure 15.Bird Diversity in Namibia172</p> <p>Figure 16.Reptile Diversity in Namibia173</p> <p>Figure 17.Plant Diversity in Namibia173</p> <p>1.4 Abbreviations and Acronyms</p> <p>AFRICON</p> <p>Africa Consulting</p> <p>APR</p> <p>Annual Project Review</p> <p>BCLME</p> <p>Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem</p> <p>BCP</p> <p>Biodiversity Conservation Programme</p> <p>BEE</p> <p>Black Economic Empowerment</p> <p>BIOTA</p> <p>Biodiversity Monitoring Transect Analysis</p> <p>BMM</p> <p>Bwabwata Mamili Mudumu National Parks</p> <p>CARE</p> <p>Cooperative for Relief and Assistance Everywhere</p> <p>CBD</p> <p>Convention on Biological Diversity</p> <p>CBNRM</p> <p>Community Based Natural Resource Management</p> <p>CBO</p> <p>Community Based Organisation</p> <p>CBT</p> <p>Community Based Tourism</p> <p>CCD</p> <p>Convention on Combat Desertification</p> <p>CI</p> <p>Conservation International</p> <p>CIA</p> <p>Central Intelligence Agency</p> <p>CITES</p> <p>Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species</p> <p>CLB</p> <p>Communal Land Board </p> <p>COP</p> <p>Conference of the Parties</p> <p>CoW</p> <p>City of Windhoek</p> <p>CPB</p> <p>Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety</p> <p>CPD</p> <p>Country Programme Document</p> <p>CPP-SLM</p> <p>Country Pilot Partnerships for Sustainable Land Management</p> <p>CRM</p> <p>Community Resource Management</p> <p>CSO</p> <p>Civil Society Organization</p> <p>DANIDA</p> <p>Danish Agency for Development Assistance</p> <p>DASS</p> <p>Directorate of Administration and Support Services</p> <p>DEA</p> <p>Directorate of Environmental Affairs</p> <p>DMP</p> <p>Desert Margins Programme</p> <p>DNRM</p> <p>D...</p>

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