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<ul><li><p>Meter Explanations</p><p>4</p><p>7</p><p>10</p><p>11</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>8</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>2</p><p>8</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>3</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>8</p><p>3</p><p>8</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>6</p><p>8</p><p>6</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>4</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>8</p><p>4</p><p>8</p><p>6</p><p>8</p><p>6</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>12</p><p>8</p><p>12</p><p>8</p><p>Simple= Beats can be divided in 2Duple= 2 beats per measure</p><p>Simple= Beats can be divided in 2Triple= 3 beats per measure</p><p>Quadruple= 4 beats per measureSimple= Beats can be divided in 2</p><p>Compound= Beats can be divided in 3Duple= 2 beats per measure</p><p>Compound= Beats can be divided in 3Triple= 3 beats per measure</p><p>Simple Duple= 2 on top</p><p>Simple Triple= 3 on top</p><p>Simple Quadruple= 4 on top</p><p>Compound Duple= 6 on top</p><p>Compound Triple= 9 on top</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>13</p><p>15</p><p>12</p><p>8</p><p>12</p><p>8</p><p>5</p><p>8</p><p>7</p><p>8</p><p>5</p><p>8</p><p>7</p><p>8</p><p>5</p><p>8</p><p>5</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>10</p><p>8</p><p>10</p><p>8</p><p>11</p><p>8</p><p>11</p><p>8</p><p>Compound= Beats can be divided in 3Quadruple= 4 beats per measure</p><p>Order doesn't mattersimple beat, simple beat, compund beat</p><p>ex.)simple beat, compound beat, simple beatcompound beat,simple beat, simple beat</p><p>Odd meters</p><p>Compound Quadruple= 12 on top</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>W=Whole Steph= half step= flat= double-flat#= sharpx= double sharp=natural</p><p>Scale formulas</p><p>3</p><p>7</p><p>5</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>1 2</p><p>1 2</p><p>3 4</p><p>3 4</p><p>5 6 7</p><p>5 6 7</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>1</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>5 6</p><p>5</p><p>7</p><p>6 7</p><p>8</p><p>8</p><p>Major</p><p>Natural Minor- Typically used when decending</p><p>W W h W W W h</p><p>Melodic Minor-Typically used when ascending</p><p>Harmonic Minor</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>h</p><p>h</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>h W W</p><p>h</p><p>h</p><p>W+h</p><p>W</p><p>W W</p><p>W</p><p>W</p><p>h</p></li><li><p>Note names</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>1Tonic</p><p>2Supertonic</p><p>3/3SubdominantMediant</p><p>4</p><p>Tonic1</p><p>Supertonic2</p><p>SubdominantMediant3 4</p><p>5SubmediantDominant</p><p>6/6Leading tone*</p><p>87Tonic</p><p>SubmediantDominant5</p><p>Subtonic**76</p><p>Tonic8</p><p>Major, Melodic Minor, and Harmonic Minor scale note names</p><p>W hWNatural Minor scale note names</p><p>W Wh W</p><p>WW W h</p><p>h W W*only when natural**only when flatted</p></li><li><p>This follows the "circle of fifths", meaning that each key is a fifth of the previous. As you go on, you gain flats, and then you switch to sharps. Once you start on sharps, you lose a sharp each tim</p><p>Key Signatures</p><p>3</p><p>5</p><p>7</p><p>9</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>C major/A minor*</p><p>F major/D minor</p><p>B major/G minor</p><p>E major/C minor</p><p>A major/ F minor</p><p>*Note: "Minor" here refers to the natural minor. To make natural minor harmonic, sharp the 7, and to make natural minor melodic, sharp the 6 and the 7.</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>13</p><p>15</p><p>17</p><p>19</p><p>21</p><p>D major/B minor</p><p>G major/E minor</p><p>C major/A minor</p><p>C# major/A# minor</p><p>F# major/D# minor</p><p>B major/G# minor</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>23</p><p>25</p><p>27</p><p>29</p><p>31</p><p>E major/C# minor</p><p>A major/F# minor</p><p>D major/B minor</p><p>G major/E minor</p><p>C major/A minor</p><p>3</p></li><li><p> Intervals</p><p>29</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p># of half-stepsSpecial Name</p><p>Name 1</p><p>0Prime</p><p>2nd</p><p>2Major 2nd</p><p>Perfect 5th5th</p><p>7Major 6th</p><p>6th</p><p>9</p><p>Major 3rd3rd</p><p>4</p><p>4thPerfect 4th</p><p>5</p><p>Major 7th7th</p><p>11Perfect 8th / Octave</p><p>8th</p><p>12</p><p>Name</p><p># of half-stepsSpecial Name</p><p>Name</p><p># of half-stepsSpecial Name</p><p>Augmented 5th</p><p>Name</p><p>A5</p><p>8</p><p>A1</p><p>Minor 2nd</p><p>1Augmented 1st</p><p>1</p><p>m2</p><p>Augmented 2ndA2</p><p>3Minor 3rd</p><p>m3</p><p>3</p><p>Augmented 6thA6</p><p>10</p><p>d2 d3</p><p># of half-stepsSpecial Name</p><p>Diminished 6thd6</p><p>7</p><p>0Diminished 2nd</p><p>Diminished 7th</p><p>Diminished 3rd2</p><p>d7</p><p>9</p><p>Augmented 3rdA3</p><p>8Minor 6th</p><p>m6</p><p>5</p><p>Augmented 7thA7</p><p>12Augmented 8th</p><p>d4</p><p>Minor 7th</p><p>Augmented 4thA4</p><p>10</p><p>m7</p><p>6</p><p>A8</p><p>13</p><p>d5Diminished 4th</p><p>4</p><p>Diminished 8thd8</p><p>11</p><p>Diminished 5th6</p><p>Generic Intervals</p><p>Minor Intervals-Only 2nds,3rds,6ths,7ths</p><p>Augmented Intervals</p><p>Diminished Intervals</p></li><li><p>5Chord Triads</p><p>9</p><p>13</p><p>17</p><p>Root Third</p><p>Root Major Third</p><p>Fifth Triad</p><p>Perfect Fifth Triad</p><p>Root</p><p>Root</p><p>Root</p><p>Major Third</p><p>Minor Third</p><p>Minor Third Diminished Fifth</p><p>Augmented Fifth</p><p>Perfect Fifth</p><p>Triad</p><p>Triad</p><p>Triad</p><p>Generic Triads</p><p>Major Triads</p><p>Minor Triad</p><p>Augmented Triad</p><p>Diminished Triad</p></li><li><p>2Chord Inversions</p><p>3</p><p>5</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>The bottom note is called bass note, and it determines the name of the inversion. In this case it is C.</p><p>The root is the bass note, making this root position</p><p>Once we bring the bottom note up an octave,the fifth is the bass note, making this second inversion</p><p>Once we bring the bottom note up an octave,the third is the bass note, making this first inversion</p><p>Once we bring the bottom note up an octave,the root is the bass note again, making this root position</p><p>Root position</p><p>First Inversion</p><p>Root position(again)</p><p>Second Inversion</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>Seventh Chords</p><p>11</p><p>16</p><p>21</p><p>26</p><p>31</p><p>36</p><p>41</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>Root Major 3rd Perfect 5th</p><p>Root</p><p>Root</p><p>Major 3rd</p><p>Minor 3rd</p><p>Perfect 5th</p><p>Perfect 5th</p><p>Minor 7th 7</p><p>Minor 7th</p><p>Major 7th M7</p><p>m7</p><p>Root</p><p>Root</p><p>Root</p><p>Minor 3rd</p><p>Minor 3rd</p><p>Minor 3rd</p><p>Root Major 3rd</p><p>Minor 5th</p><p>Minor 5th</p><p>Perfect 5th</p><p>Augmented 5th</p><p>Root Major 3rd</p><p>Root First Inversion</p><p>Augmented 5th</p><p>Second Inversion</p><p>Minor 7th</p><p>Diminished 7th</p><p>Major 7th</p><p>Major 7th</p><p>7</p><p>7</p><p>mM7</p><p>+M7</p><p>Minor 7th</p><p>Third inversion</p><p>+7</p><p>Dominant 7th</p><p>Major 7th</p><p>Minor 7th</p><p>Half-Diminished 7th</p><p>Diminished/Fully-Diminished 7th</p><p>Minor-Major 7th</p><p>Augmented-Major 7th</p><p>Augmented 7th</p><p>Inversions</p></li><li><p>M=Majorm=Minord=DiminishedA=Augmented</p><p>3</p><p>Diatonic Chords</p><p>5</p><p>7</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>M m m M</p><p>m d M m</p><p>M m d M</p><p>m M M m</p><p>m</p><p>m</p><p>m</p><p>d</p><p>A</p><p>A</p><p>M</p><p>m</p><p>M</p><p>M</p><p>d</p><p>M</p><p>d</p><p>d</p><p>m</p><p>m</p><p>Major Scale</p><p>Natural Minor</p><p>Harmonic Minor</p><p>Melodic Minor</p></li><li><p>I,II,III,etc.=Major Triadsi,ii,iii,etc.=Minor TriadsI+,II+,III+,etc.=Augmented TriadsI,II,III,etc.=Diminished Triads</p><p>3</p><p>Ruman Numeral Analysis</p><p>5</p><p>M=Majorm=Minor</p><p>d=DiminishedA=Augmented</p><p>7</p><p>9</p><p>12</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>M</p><p>I1</p><p>m</p><p>ii2</p><p>m</p><p>iii3</p><p>M</p><p>IV4</p><p>m</p><p>i1</p><p>d</p><p>ii2</p><p>M</p><p>III3</p><p>m</p><p>iv4</p><p>M</p><p>V5</p><p>m d</p><p>vi6</p><p>vii7</p><p>M</p><p>I8</p><p>m</p><p>v5</p><p>M M</p><p>VI6</p><p>VII7</p><p>m</p><p>i8</p><p>i1m</p><p>m</p><p>i1</p><p>ii2d</p><p>m</p><p>ii2</p><p>m</p><p>i1</p><p>d M</p><p>ii2</p><p>III3</p><p>III+3A</p><p>A</p><p>III+3</p><p>iv4m</p><p>M</p><p>IV4</p><p>A</p><p>III+3</p><p>m M</p><p>iv4</p><p>V5</p><p>m</p><p>i1</p><p>d M</p><p>ii2</p><p>III3</p><p>m</p><p>iv4</p><p>M m</p><p>V5</p><p>v5</p><p>V5M</p><p>M</p><p>V5</p><p>VI6M</p><p>d</p><p>vii7d</p><p>d</p><p>vi6</p><p>vii7</p><p>m M</p><p>v5</p><p>VI6</p><p>M</p><p>VII7</p><p>vii</p><p>i8m</p><p>m</p><p>i8</p><p>d m7</p><p>i8</p><p>M M</p><p>VI6</p><p>VII7</p><p>d</p><p>vii7</p><p>m</p><p>i8</p><p>Major Scale</p><p>Natural Minor</p><p>Harmonic Minor</p><p>Melodic Minor</p><p>"Messy"l Merged Minor</p><p>Pure Merged Minor (no III+)</p></li><li><p>15</p><p>17</p><p>19</p><p>21</p><p>23</p><p>M7 m7</p><p>I71</p><p>m7</p><p>ii72</p><p>d7</p><p>m7 M7</p><p>iii73</p><p>M7</p><p>IV74</p><p>m7</p><p>i71</p><p>m7</p><p>ii72</p><p>d71 2</p><p>III73</p><p>A7</p><p>iv74</p><p>m73 4</p><p>7 m7 7</p><p>VI75</p><p>m7</p><p>vi76</p><p>vii77</p><p>M7 M7</p><p>M7</p><p>I78</p><p>m7</p><p>v75</p><p>M7</p><p>VI76</p><p>VII77</p><p>M7 d75 6 7</p><p>i78</p><p>m8</p><p>i71m</p><p>i7</p><p>Root Position</p><p>ii72m</p><p>ii7</p><p>I</p><p>III+73A</p><p>III+7</p><p>First Inversion</p><p>IV74M</p><p>iv7</p><p>Ib</p><p>V75M</p><p>V7</p><p>Second Inversion</p><p>vi76d</p><p>VI7</p><p>vii77d</p><p>vii7</p><p>Third InversionIc</p><p>i78m</p><p>i7</p><p>Id</p><p>Major Scale 7ths</p><p>Natural Minor 7ths</p><p>Harmonic Minor 7ths</p><p>Melodic Minor 7ths</p><p>Inversions</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>Chord Voicing</p><p>6</p><p>11</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>We can arrange the notes in any order as long</p><p>We can arrange the notes in any order as long</p><p>as C,E, and G are used and C is the lowest note</p><p>as C,E, and G are used and E is the lowest note</p><p>We can arrange the notes in any order as long as C,E, and G are used and G is the lowest note</p><p>Root Position</p><p>First Inversion</p><p>Second Inversion</p></li><li><p>Nonharmonic tones (or non-chord tones) are notes that do not belong in a certain chord.</p><p>Nonharmonic Tones</p><p>3</p><p>7</p><p>11</p><p>15</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>Step Step Skip Skip</p><p>PT</p><p>NT</p><p>Ant.</p><p>&gt;PT</p><p>&gt;NT</p><p>Ant.</p><p>In this example, the F is a nonharmonic tone because it does not fit into the I chord (which contains C, E, and G).</p><p>A step is equal to an interval of a generic second A skip is equal to an interval of a generic third or more.</p><p>A passing tone (PT) is approached by step and then continues by step in the same direction.</p><p>A neighboring tone (NT) is approached by step and then returns by step to the original note</p><p>An anticipation (Ant.) is approached by step and then remains the same. It is basically a note of the second chord played early.Anticipations are not accented.</p><p>If a passing tone occurs with the second chord (instead of in the middle of the two chords),it is called an accented passing tone (&gt;PT).</p><p>If it occurs with the second chord, it is called an accented neighboring tone (&gt;NT).</p></li><li><p>19</p><p>21</p><p>23</p><p>27</p><p>ET</p><p>App.</p><p>Sus.</p><p>CT</p><p>Ret.</p><p>An escape tone (ET) is approached by step and then skips in the opposite direction.Escape tones are not accented they occur in between the two chords.</p><p>An appoggiatura (App.) is approached by skip and then steps in the opposite direction.Appoggiaturas are accented they occur with the second chord.</p><p>A suspension (Sus.) keeps a note the same and then steps downward.Both the retardation and suspension are accented.</p><p>Changing tones (CT) use two nonharmonic tones in succession.The first nonharmonic tone is approached by step and then skips in the opposite direction to the second nonharmonic tone.The second nonharmonic tone then resolves by step.They are sometimes called double neighboring tones or a neighbor group</p><p>A retardation (Ret.) keeps a note the same and then steps upward.</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>A phrase is a series of notes that sound complete even when played apart from the main songA cadence is a two-chord progression that occurs at the end of a phrase.</p><p>Phrases and Cadences</p><p>9</p><p>17</p><p>19</p><p>Phrase Phrase</p><p>I</p><p>V</p><p>ii V7 HCI V</p><p>viiOb I Vb</p><p>IV iiiii6</p><p>I</p><p>vi ii V AC I</p><p>I V I</p><p>If a phrase ends with any chord going to V, a half cadence (HC) occurs.</p><p>Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC)</p><p>Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)-Don't meet PAC reqs.</p><p>1.V is used instead of viiO2.Both chords in root position3.Highest note of the I/i chord mut be the tonic.</p><p>Imperfect b/c a viio is used instead of a V Imperfect b/c first chord is not in root position</p><p>Most half-cadences are followed by authenic cadencesAn authentic cadence occurs whenever a phrase ends with Vor viio going to I (or i if minor).</p><p>Imperfect b/c highest note of the I chord is not the tonic of the scale</p></li><li><p>25</p><p>28</p><p>I Vc Ib</p><p>I ii V7 HCI V</p><p>IV IPC</p><p>iibIV iii vi ii V viDC</p><p>Plagal Cadence (PC)</p><p>If a phrase ends with IV (or iv) going to I (or i), a plagal cadence (PC) occurs.</p><p>Deceptive Cadence (DC)- often used in place of authentic cadence</p><p>If a phrase ends with V going to a chord other than I (or i), a deceptive cadence (DC) occurs.</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>Root motion is the movement from one chord's root to another chor'd root.A circle progression occurs when root motion is equal to up a fourth or down a fifth</p><p>Circle Progressions</p><p>9</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>I IV viio iii vi ii V I</p><p>i iv VII III VI iio V i</p><p>Major Circle Progressions </p><p>Minor Circle Progressions </p></li><li><p>Triads in chord progressions</p><p>11</p><p>17</p><p>23</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>I V vi V I</p><p>I I IV</p><p>I V vi Vb I</p><p>I Ib IV</p><p>I V Ib</p><p>I IV I</p><p>I Vc Ib</p><p>I IVc I</p><p>First Inversions #1-Used to smooth out bass line</p><p>First Inversions #2-Used when repeating chords</p><p>Second Inversion #1-Used to smooth out bass line</p><p>Second Inversion #2-Used to straighten out bass line</p><p>A second inversion triad used to eliminate movement in the bass line is called a pedal six-four chord</p><p>A second inversion triad used to make the bass line move by step and become smooth is called a passing six-four chord.</p></li><li><p>29</p><p>34</p><p>I IV Ic</p><p>Contains diminished fifthRare</p><p>Contains no augmented or diminished intervalsCommon</p><p>V I</p><p>Contains augmented fourthVery Rare</p><p>Second Inversion #3-Used before a V chord in cadence, and makes it stronger</p><p>On the chord progression chart, the cadential six-four occurs in between predominants and dominants.</p><p>Diminished Inversions- </p><p>2</p></li><li><p>A Neapolitan chord is simply a major triad that is built on a special note.This note is the lowered second degree (the supertonic) of a major or minor scale.</p><p>Neapolitan Chords</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>6</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>4</p><p>Supertonic</p><p>Ib=First Inversion, takes place of I6Ic=Second Inversion,takes place of I64</p><p>Building Neapolitan Chords1. Find the second scale degree. In Cm, this is D</p><p>2. Lower it one half-step. In this case, it results in D</p><p>3. Build a major triad. In this case, it results in D-F-A</p><p>A D chord is the Neapolitan of C Minor</p></li><li><p>712</p><p>22</p><p>NUncommon</p><p>iiob Nb</p><p>Neapolitan sixthCommon</p><p>i VI iiob V i</p><p>iv NcUncommon</p><p>i VI Nb V i</p><p>i iv ic V i i Nb ic V i</p><p>Using Neapolitan Chords</p><p> The Neapolitan sixth's bass note is the same as a first inversion iio (or ii) or a root position iv (or IV).For this reason, it often substitutes for these chords. Hence, it primarily functions as a predominant.</p><p>Example #1</p><p>Example #2</p><p>We can replace the iib chord with a Neapolitan sixth.</p><p>This time, we will replace the IV with a Neapolitan sixth.</p><p>2</p></li></ul>

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