Music Theory Booklet

Download Music Theory Booklet

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Easy booklet for helping anyone with music theory basics.

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<ul><li><p>(1) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> Basic Music Theory </p><p>and History for GCSE: A Students Guide </p><p>G. Bunce </p><p>Name: ____________________________</p></li><li><p>(2) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>Contents List </p><p>Reading Music 1: .............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Pitch .................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Lines and other bits............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 Accidentals.......................................................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Ledger lines......................................................................................................................................... 5 </p><p>Reading Music 2: .............................................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 Rhythm.......................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Dots &amp; Ties ................................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Time Signatures &amp; Bar lines......................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Grouping Rhythms.............................................................................................................................. 7 2.5 Note tail direction ............................................................................................................................... 8 2.6 Rests.................................................................................................................................................... 8 </p><p>Simply Boredom ............................................................................................................................................... 9 Reading Music 3: .............................................................................................................................................. 9 </p><p>3.1 Simple &amp; Compound Time Signatures ............................................................................................... 9 3.2 Dynamics .......................................................................................................................................... 10 3.3 Signs, Symbols, &amp; Abbreviations..................................................................................................... 11 </p><p>Sonatina........................................................................................................................................................... 13 Scales &amp; Harmony 4: ...................................................................................................................................... 14 </p><p>4.1 Tones &amp; Semitones ........................................................................................................................... 14 4.2 Major Scales...................................................................................................................................... 14 4.3 Minor Scales ..................................................................................................................................... 15 4.4 Key Signatures .................................................................................................................................. 16 3.5 Minor Key Signature......................................................................................................................... 17 4.6 Pentatonic Scales .............................................................................................................................. 18 4.7 Chords ............................................................................................................................................... 18 4.8 Inversions.......................................................................................................................................... 19 4.9 Arpeggios.......................................................................................................................................... 19 </p><p>The Orchestra: 4.............................................................................................................................................. 20 Italian Terms: 6 ............................................................................................................................................... 22 Ornaments: 7................................................................................................................................................... 22 Melodic &amp; Rhythmic Devices: 8 .................................................................................................................... 22 Melodic &amp; Rhythmic Devices: 8 .................................................................................................................... 23 Intervals: 9 ...................................................................................................................................................... 24 Music History 1600-1899: 10 ......................................................................................................................... 25 </p><p>10.1 Opera &amp; Oratorio ............................................................................................................................ 26 10.2 Instrumental music.......................................................................................................................... 27 </p><p>Chords, Cadences, &amp; Modulation: 11............................................................................................................. 28 11.1 Labeling chords............................................................................................................................... 28 11.2 Cadences ......................................................................................................................................... 28 11.3 Modulation...................................................................................................................................... 29 11.4 How does a piece of music modulate ?........................................................................................... 29 </p><p>Musical Elements: 12...................................................................................................................................... 32 </p></li><li><p>(3) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> Basic Music Theory </p><p> This guide will take you through the basics of music theory that you need to know for your GCSE. You must try very hard to learn to read music as you will be presented with it in your listening exam and be expected to learn a piece to perform (from music) for your practical exam. Unlike at KS3, all musical examples given to you at GCSE will NOT have the letters underneath. Reading music is easy! Throughout the worksheets, there will be weblinks that you can use. These will take you to some of the examples used in class. To save you typing out the addresses, why not download this handout from First Class. You will be using this pack through out your GCSE and it will be essential for your revision. Therefore, do not loose it and make sure you bring it to every lesson. </p><p>Reading Music 1: 1.1 Pitch http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id10_en.html </p></li><li><p>(4) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> The best way to learn to read pitch is to use rhymes. Add the letters and rhymes to this piano music. </p><p>1.2 Lines and other bits Note that the music above has both a treble &amp; bass clef. Mark these on the worksheet. Also mark the following words. </p><p>Stave Brace (keyboard music) Bar line Double bar (end) </p><p>1.3 Accidentals Accidental is the collective name for sharps, flats and naturals. These are to do with the black notes on the keyboard. You teacher will go through them with you. Write things down on the staves below. </p></li><li><p>(5) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>1.4 Ledger lines If you look at the music and keyboard on the last page you will note that only a very small part of the keyboard is covered by the bass and treble clefs. To go higher or lower, you have to add ledger lines. </p><p> HWK: Complete the note-naming exercises given to you. Hand your work in next lesson. </p></li><li><p>(6) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>Reading Music 2: 2.1 Rhythm http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id11_en.html Write the names and values of the following notes </p><p>2.2 Dots &amp; Ties http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id14_en.html Dots mean that you add half the note value to the note Ties allow you to hold notes, particularly over bar lines </p></li><li><p>(7) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>2.3 Time Signatures &amp; Bar lines http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id12_en.html Your teacher will explain how time signatures work using the web link above. Make notes on the staves below: </p><p>2.4 Grouping Rhythms To make music look less complicated, rhythms are often grouped into beats. Your teacher will show you some examples for you to copy down </p></li><li><p>(8) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>2.5 Note tail direction </p><p> 2.6 Rests http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id13_en.html Write in one rest at each place marked with a * </p><p> Revision: </p><p>1. Learn to play Simply Boredom 2. Add the left hand part or get a partner to play it 3. Learn the bass part to the middle section 4. Compose a melody to fit it (you may like to use the same rhythm as the original melody 5. Notate it (WATCH OUT FOR TAIL DIRECTION) 6. Play your composition through. </p></li><li><p>(9) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>Simply Boredom </p><p> You will be given a class demonstration of Sibelius teaching you how to enter music. Enter Simply Boredom and get the computer to play it. HWK: Complete the homework sheet Rhythmic work and Time Signatures for next lesson. </p><p>Reading Music 3: 3.1 Simple &amp; Compound Time Signatures http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id15_en.html </p></li><li><p>(10) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>3.2 Dynamics </p><p> Add some dynamics to Simply Boredom; you will be shown how to add these on Sibelius. </p></li><li><p>(11) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>3.3 Signs, Symbols, &amp; Abbreviations Your teacher will go through all the signs, symbols, and abbreviations below and demonstrate each one using Sibelius. Beside each one, make a note of how you add them on Sibelius. </p></li><li><p>(12) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> The following piece will be used for examples. </p></li><li><p>(13) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>Sonatina </p></li><li><p>(14) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> On Sibelius load up the piece called Sonatine, OP.36 TO BE COMPELTED, and look carefully at the version above. Work in pairs updating the Sibelius score in all of the places marked. Finally, add the dynamics and save the piece in your user area before listening to it. </p><p>Scales &amp; Harmony 4: 4.1 Tones &amp; Semitones </p><p>First look at this web page http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id20_en.html and fill in the blanks: Semitone = Half Step = Tone = Whole Step = </p><p>4.2 Major Scales Scales means ladder and scales are the building blocks of music. Major scales sound Happy. This is the blueprint: </p><p>TTS TTTS </p><p>What is a tone above D ? What is a semitone above F# ? What is a semitone below Gb ? What is a semitone below Bb ? What is a tone above G ? What is a tone above B ? What is a tone below Eb ? What is a semitone above F ? What is a semitone below G# ? What is a tone below F ? </p></li><li><p>(15) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> HWK: Pick five notes that we havent done in class and build major scales on them. </p><p> 4.3 Minor Scales http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id22_en.html </p><p> Minor Scales sound SAD. There are 3 types presented on the web site. You need to know the HARMONIC MINOR: </p><p>T S T T S T S </p></li><li><p>(16) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p> 4.4 Key Signatures http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/html/id24_en.html </p><p>Imagine what it would be like if you wrote a piece in E major. All of the Fs, Cs, Gs, Ds would have to have #s beside them. It looks really messy: </p><p>To stop this from happening, musicians place key signatures at the beginning of each stave next to the clef. For GCSE you need to know minor and major keys up to 4 sharps and flats. </p><p>The order of sharps follows a special pattern: </p><p>Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle. A way of working out the key of sharp key signatures is to look at the last sharp and name the note above, e.g. the key signatures with three sharps has G# as its last sharp therefore the note above is A so that key signature is A major. The order of flats follows a special pattern: </p><p>Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles Father. </p><p>Look at how this pattern relates to the sharp-key pattern: ____________________________ </p><p>A way of working out the key of flat key signatures is to look at the second from last flat which shares the same name as the key you are looking at. </p></li><li><p>(17) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>Write out all the key signatures from above on the following staves: </p><p>3.5 Minor Key Signature Every major key has a relative minor that looks exactly the same. Look at the following table and see if you can spot a pattern. When you have, fill in the blanks </p><p> This means that E minor has the same key signature as G major (1 sharp = F#). So, if you want to create a scale of Em, play E-E with an F#. You still need to raise the 7th (D#) Summary: Minor scales </p><p>1. Write out the white-note letter of the scale you want 2. Add the KS of the major relative 3. Raise the 7th note by a semitone </p><p>Major Minor Number of #/b C major A minor G major E minor D major A major E major C# minor F major Bb major Eb major C minor Ab major </p></li><li><p>(18) Furze Platt Senior School </p><p>4.6 Pentatonic Scales As you will probably remember from KS3, pentatonic scales are 5-note scales. For GCSE, you need to know the major pentatonic. You could find this on a keyboard by playing just the black notes. What is the tone and semitone pattern? _________________________ Now work it out in the following keys and write them out in notation. G, D, C, F </p><p> Pentatonic scales will be covered again when we do world music. They tend to be found in oriental music. Rock musicians also use them to improvise on. If you can remember the blues scale from Y9, work out the tone and semitone pattern for the blues scale then transpose it to another key than C. </p><p>4.7 Chords Chords are created from scales. You may remember in Y8 learning to construct chords by playing a note, missing a note, playing a note, missing a note, and playing a note. This is alright for KS3, but how on earth do you know the difference between major and minor chor...</p></li></ul>