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Music Theory

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  • Canada

    National Dfense Defence nationale

    A-CR-CCP-166/PT-004

    CADET MUSIC THEORY PROGRAM (ENGLISH) Cette publication est disponible en franais sous le numro A-CR-CCP-166/PT-005. Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff

    OPI: D CDTS 3 2004-06-01

  • A-CR-CCP-166/PT-004

    A

    LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

    Insert latest changed pages and dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable orders.

    NOTE

    The portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated by a black vertical line in the margin of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing hands or black vertical lines.

    Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:

    Original ............................ 0 .................2004-06-01Ch .................................... 1 ...................................Ch .................................... 2 ...................................

    Ch.................................... 3 ....................................Ch.................................... 4 ....................................Ch.................................... 5 ....................................

    Zero in Change No. column indicates an original page. Total number of pages in this publication is 190 consistingof the following:

    Page No. Change No. Page No. Change No.Cover .........................................................................0 i to iv.......................................................................... 0Title............................................................................0 1 to 183 ..................................................................... 0A ................................................................................0

    Contact Officer: D CDTS 3-4-2

    2004 DND/MDN Canada

  • FOREWORD

    1. This book has been designed as a study manual and exercise book for cadet musicians wishing to take a music qualification.

    2. Training centres and units can use this document to distinguish the different standards of music theory for levels Basic, I, II, III, IV, and V.

    3. This manual only contains the subject matter required by Technical Standards for Cadet Musicians. The use of certain other publications on music theory would be complementary and could help with the learning process. For worthwhile suggestions consult reference manuals.

    4. A cadet who wishes to reach a particular level is strongly encouraged to read the relevant chapter and practise the exercises it contains. However, reading alone cannot entirely replace actual practice or a period of music instruction.Consequently, you are advised to seek the assistance of someone experienced in this field.

    5. Even though this publication has been specially designed for cadets, the instructorshould use it as a reference guide to prepare music training and to keep track of his cadets musical development.

    6. You are advised to photocopy certain chapters and exercises in order to keep your own copy in good condition and thus be able to use it repeatedly over a long period.

    7. If you have any questions concerning the content of this manual, consult D Cdts 3.

    i

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Level BasicThe Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Treble and Bass Clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Value of Rests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Repeat Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Review Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Level OneDotted Notes and Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Tones and Semitones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Understanding Accidentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Simple Time Signatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Strong Beats, Weak Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Chromatic Semitones and Diatonic Semitones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Different Kinds of Scales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36The Major Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37The Order of Sharps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38The Major Scale with Sharps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42The Major Scale with Flats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Relative Minor Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49The Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54The Fermata. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Words that Refer to Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Articulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Review Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    Level TwoThe Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Compound Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Scale Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Finding the Key of a Given Melody. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Intervals of Seconds and Thirds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Transposing a Melody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Review Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    ii

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Level ThreeUnderstanding all Regular Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Melodic Minor Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Three-Note Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Major Chord or Minor Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97Tempo and Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100Review Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

    Level FourIrregular Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111Finding the Key of a Melody without a Key Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Transposing a Melody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127Tempo and Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129Cadences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131Detecting Errors in a Given Musical Passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133Review Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

    Level FiveThe C Clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147Diminished and Augmented Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151Inverted Triads (Chords) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Dominant Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154Transposing a Melody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .