Music Preparation Guidelines for Orch.pdf

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  • Music Preparation Guidelines

    for Orchestral M

    usic

    Prepared by theM

    ajor Orchestra Librarians Association Publication Com

    mittee

    Music Preparation G

    uidelinesfor O

    rchestral Music

    Prepared by theM

    ajor Orchestra Librarians Association Publication Com

    mittee

    1993 EditionClin

    ton F. N

    ieweg, P

    hilad

    elphia O

    rchestra

    David

    Barto

    lotta, San

    Francisco

    Ballet

    Peter C

    onover, H

    ousto

    n Sym

    phony

    Gary C

    orrin

    ,To

    ronto

    Symphony

    Marcia Farab

    ee, Natio

    nal Sym

    phony

    JohnG

    rande, Metrop

    olitan Opera

    Robert M

    . Gro

    ssman

    , Philad

    elphia

    Orch

    estra P

    aul G

    unth

    er, Min

    neso

    ta Orch

    estra Jam

    es Kortz, St.

    Pau

    l Cham

    ber O

    rchestra

    Mary C

    . Plain

    e, Baltim

    ore Sym

    phony

    Rosem

    ary Sum

    mers, M

    etropolitan

    Opera

    Lawren

    ce Tarlo

    w, N

    ewYork P

    hilh

    armonic

    John V

    an W

    inkle, San

    Francisco

    Symphony

    Revised in 2001Jo

    hn C

    ampbell, San

    Francisco

    Symphony

    Russ G

    irsberger, N

    ewEnglan

    d C

    onservato

    ry M

    argo H

    odgso

    n, N

    ational A

    rts Cen

    treO

    rchestra

    Caro

    l Lasley, Florid

    a Philh

    armonic

    Cath

    y Miller, T

    he

    U.S. A

    rmy Field

    Ban

    d

    Patrick

    Zw

    ick, U

    tah Sym

    phony

    Revised in 2006Step

    hen

    Biagin

    i, Los A

    ngeles P

    hilh

    armonic

    Russ G

    irsberger, N

    ewEnglan

    d C

    onservato

    ry K

    azue M

    cGrego

    r, Los A

    ngeles P

    hilh

    armonic

    C

    linton F. Niew

    eg, Philadelphia O

    rchestra (retired) G

    regory Vaught,San

    Anto

    nio

    Symphony

    Justin

    Vib

    bard

    , Florid

    a West C

    oast Sym

    phony

    Additional PublicationsThe p

    ublicatio

    ns co

    mm

    ittee of M

    OLA

    has p

    repared

    two o

    ther

    bro

    chures en

    titled:

    What is M

    OLA? A G

    uide tothe M

    ajor Orchestra Librarians Association

    and

    The Orchestra Librarian: A Career Introduction

    For Fu

    rther In

    form

    ation ab

    out M

    OLA

    visit our w

    ebsite at:

    ww

    w.m

    ola-inc.org

  • The Major O

    rchestraLibrarians Association

    The primary goals of the M

    ajor Orchestra Librarians Association (MOLA)

    are to improve com

    munication am

    ong orchestra librarians, to provide supportand inform

    ation to the orchestra administrations, to present a unified voice in

    publisher relations, and to assist fellow librarians in providing better service totheir orchestras.

    MOLA is an international organization that includes libraries from

    symphony orchestras, opera and ballet com

    panies, professional bands andensem

    bles, and educational institutions. Our mem

    bership includes musical

    organizations in North, Central, and South America, Europe, the M

    iddle East,Africa, Asia, and Australia.

    MOLA periodically invites representatives from

    music publishers to its

    annual conferences in order to address the publication and condition ofprinted m

    usical materials. This collaborative effort has led to the form

    ation ofthe M

    OLA/Publisher Comm

    ittee.

    MOLA is represented on the M

    LA (Music Library Association) / M

    PA(M

    usic Publishers Association) / MOLA Joint Com

    mittee. In addition, M

    OLAhas cultivated relationships with other m

    usic service organizations. Theseinclude the International Association of M

    usic Librarians, the American

    Symphony Orchestra League, the Am

    erican Federation of Musicians, the

    International Conference of Symphony and Opera M

    usicians, and theRegional Orchestra Players Association

    For further information, contact the orchestra librarian at your local

    symphony, opera, or ballet orchestra or visit the M

    OLA website at:w

    ww

    .mola-inc.org

    ProofreadingIt is m

    andatory that prior to repro-duction the parts be proofread by aqualified professional proofreader andNOT only the com

    poser or the copyist whoprepared the parts. Please do not expectorchestra librarians to provide additionalproofreading services.

    Formatting and Binding

    In North America, the parts should be

    prepared within an image area of no less

    than 8 x 11 inches on paper at least 9.5 x12.5 inches. These m

    inimum

    require-m

    ents leave a 0.75 inch margin sur-

    rounding the image area. A com

    mon

    page size among m

    any publishers is 10 x13 inches. Parts larger than 11 x 14inches are inconvenient and unwieldy.

    If using the ISO A and B series paperform

    ats, parts should be prepared withinan im

    age area of 170mm

    x 257mm

    onpaper no sm

    aller than A4. These mini-

    mum

    requirements leave a 40m

    m m

    arginsurrounding the im

    age area. Comm

    onpage sizes am

    ong publishers who use theISO paper sizes are A4 and B4. W

    hile A4parts are considered the m

    inimum

    , paperlarger than A4, such as B4, is preferredand recom

    mended am

    ong librarians.Likewise, parts larger than B4 areinconvenient and unwieldy.

    Regardless of what paper size is used,parts should be reproduced with m

    usicprinted on both sides of the page.

    Parts and scores should be bound sothat they lie flat on the stand. Plasticcom

    b or coil binding may be used for

    scores but not for parts. Multiple page

    parts can be set into signatures and saddlestitched or stapled at the spine. Anotherm

    ethod uses a single strip of flexible clothtape affixed to the left m

    argin of the part.(Tape m

    anufacturers include VitalPresentation Concepts Inc.[www.vpcinc.com

    ] and 3-M Corporations

    Micropore surgical tape [www.3m

    .com].)

    All pages should be attached to the centerspine. Loose pages should be taped orattached to the center m

    argin of the spine.Accordion fold parts (single-sided sheetstaped side-to-side) are not acceptable.

    BibliographyPowell, Steven. M

    usic EngravingToday: The Art and Practice of D

    igitalN

    otesetting. New York: Brichtmark M

    usic,2002.Ross, Ted. The Art of M

    usic Engrav-ing and Processing: A Com

    pleteM

    anual, Reference and Text Book onPreparing M

    usic for Reproduction andPrint. 2nd ed., M

    iami, Fla.: Charles

    Hansen, 1970.Solom

    on, Samuel Z. H

    ow to W

    ritefor Percussion: A Com

    prehensive Guideto Percussion Com

    position. New York:SZSolom

    on, 2002.Stone, Kurt. M

    usic Notation in the

    Twentieth Century: A Practical Guide-

    book. New York: W. W. Norton, 1980.

  • MO

    LA Guidelinesfor M

    usic Preparation

    IntroductionThese guidelines for the preparation

    of music scores and parts are the result of

    many hours of discussion regarding the

    creation and layout of performance

    material that has com

    e through ourlibraries. W

    e realize that each music

    publisher has its own set of guidelines form

    usic engraving. We wish to encourage

    music publishers to work together to

    standardize those guidelines. In them

    eantime, we would like to express our

    thoughts regarding the preparation ofnew m

    usic in the hope that an agreement

    about format m

    ay be reached.

    Use of the Computer

    Advantages and Disadvantages

    With the advent of com

    puter softwarefor com

    posing and arranging music, it is

    possible to produce clear and readablem

    usic from a desktop printer. M

    usicpublishers and professional com

    posersand arrangers are creating scores andparts that are as functional and beautifulas traditionally engraved m

    usic.The technology allows the com

    poseror the copyist to enter the m

    usic into thescore through various m

    eans, includingelectronic (M

    IDI) instruments. Once the

    score is completed, individual parts are

    extracted, transposed, formatted, and

    printed, saving countless hours of work.This technology provides a great level offlexibility for editing, reproducing, andstoring m

    usic.These advantages can com

    e withhazards, however. For exam

    ple, if theediting process of a new work continuesafter the parts have been prepared anddistributed to the m

    usicians, this willrequire additional work by com

    posers,copyists, and librarians to keep up withrevisions in the com

    position and providean accurate and suitable set of parts. Also,as digital storage and distribution ofm

    usic data files becomes m

    ore comm

    on,there is the danger that the librarian willbe obliged to assum

    e the role of music

    publisher, expected to print, duplicate,and bind all of the sheet m

    usic. Not alllibraries have the facilities, staff, or tim

    eto accom

    modate these projects, and while

    librarians can advise on the format and

    layout of printed music, they should not

    be expected to act as a surrogate pub-lisher.Nonetheless, whether a score ishandwritten or produced from

    a desktopprinter, there are com

    mon, specific

    elements that m

    ake this music readable,

    and ultimately usable by m

    usicians.

    The ScoreCoverAlthough each m

    usic publisher willhave its own publication guidelines and

    Instrumental Part Readability

    The most readable staff size for all

    instruments is 8.5 m

    m (m

    easured fromthe bottom

    to the top of the staff).Although 8.0 m

    m is readable for winds, it is

    less so for strings. Wind players can read

    music from

    staves that measure 7.5 m

    m,

    but this is very problematic for string

    players. Anything smaller than 7.0 m

    m is

    unacceptable for orchestral parts. Anythinglarger than 8.5 m

    m should be avoided, as it

    is distracting to players.M

    easure (bar) numbers should

    appear at the beginning of the firstm

    easure of each line. Numbering each

    measure should be avoided, except in the

    case of multiple m

    easures rest, wherem

    easure number ranges are helpful (e.g.,

    27117).In hand-copied parts it is recom

    -m

    ended that all stems, beam

    s, and barlines be ruled with a straightedge,especially m

    ultiple-staff harp andkeyboard parts.

    Logical cues are expected duringlong period of rest, the cues beingtransposed to the reading key of theinstrum

    ent. Cues must be audible to the

    musician reading the part.

    Tempo and m

    eter changes must

    shown on all parts, even during periods ofextended rest. The use of Tacet until. . .is not acceptable.

    Specific Suggestions Clefs and key signatures m

    ust appear atthe beginning of each line.

    Parts for transposing instruments m

    ustbe written in the proper key.

    Harp pedaling should be left to theperform

    er.

    The Timpani part should NOT be

    included in the percussion part.

    Percussion parts may be in score form

    or individual instrumental parts. Each

    has its advantages depending on therequirem

    ents of the music. It is preferable

    to consult with an experienced orchestralpercussionist. In the case of a work writtenon com

    mission, consult with the principal

    percussionist of that orchestra.

    Percussion instruments should be

    notated on the staff from high to low,

    according to their relative pitch. Thesepositions m

    ust be maintained consistently

    throughout the work. A notation keyprinted at the beginning of the part m

    aybe helpful to the player.

    If any parts are reproduced with apopular transposition (for exam

    ple, Hornin E-flat transposed for Horn in F), a partin the original key should also beincluded with the set.

    Care should be taken with the use of theabbreviations 8va and 8va basso, avoidingtheir use if possible.

  • style requirements, there is som

    e informa-

    tion that is important to see on the cover

    of any score. The title of the work and thenam

    e of the composer should be printed

    prominently on the cover and spine of the

    score. If applicable, the name of the

    arranger should appear, but need not beas prom

    inent as the title and composer.

    Additionally, the name and address of the

    publisher should be easily located.

    Front Matter (Title Page,

    Preface, etc.)There should be a page at the

    beginning of the work that provides basicinform

    ation about the composition. This

    should include a list of the full instru-m

    entation, identifying any doublings, thekeys of transposing instrum

    ents (clari-nets, horns, and trum

    pets), and allpercussion instrum

    ents.An indication of how m

    any percus-sionists will be required is helpful, thougheach orchestra m

    ay or may not adhere to

    that number. Any special equipm

    ent,synthesizer settings, or other electronickeyboard requirem

    ents should be notedhere, as well as on the cover page of theinstrum

    ents part. These instructionsshould be as specific and understandableas possible. Any special instructions forprepared instrum

    ents or other uncom-

    mon instrum

    ents should also be notedhere, as well as on the cover page of theinstrum

    ent involved. Any special staginginstructions should also be m

    entioned onthis or a subsequent page. Detailed

    diagrams are helpful to illustrate particu-

    larly complex staging. If there are

    deviations from standard m

    usicalnotation, an explanation should appearfollowing the instrum

    entation page.The full title of the work should be

    printed as it would appear in a formal

    concert program, to include appropriate

    capitalization and diacritical markings,

    along with movem

    ent titles in their properorder. There should be an approxim

    ateduration given for each m

    ovement and a

    total duration for the work.

    The Music

    At the beginning of the musical score,

    the full name of each instrum

    ent should belisted to the left of the correspondingsystem

    . On subsequent pages, abbreviationsof the instrum

    ent names should be used.

    All instructions for tempi and

    dynamics should be in a conventional

    language such as English, Italian,Germ

    an, or French. All tempo indica-

    tions should appear above the top staffand above the first violin line on eachscore page.

    Each measure (bar) should be

    numbered, beginning anew with each

    movem

    ent. Placement of m

    easurenum

    bers should be the same throughout

    the work, i.e. above, below, or on a specialline of the grand staff, such as above thefirst violins. If rehearsal letters are used,they should correspond to landm

    arks inthe m

    usic and must be used in conjunc-

    tion with measure num

    bers.

    Score ReadabilityIf traditional engraving or com

    puteroutput is not possible, it is preferable toproduce a com

    pleted score done in ink.(Pencil is acceptable, but the publisherm

    ust provide some kind of quality

    control for the final outcome of the

    reproduction.) This should be done oneither vellum

    or opaque paper andclearly reproduced, back to back on thepage. Right-hand pages m

    ust be odd-num

    bered and left-hand pages must be

    even-numbered in the top right or left

    corner of the page.The score should be proofread by the

    composer and a professional proofreader

    before it is presented for reproduction.

    Instrumental Parts

    General

    Standard music notation practice

    should be observed and any deviation fromthe standard should be clearly explainedprior to the first page of m

    usic. The front ofeach part should clearly identify thecom

    poser, title of the work, and instrument,

    including doublings and key(s) oftransposing instrum

    ents where appropri-ate. Percussion parts should include a listof the instrum

    ents required.It is preferable to have com

    pletecom

    puter-generated parts, which shouldnot have any handwritten additions. If theparts are written by hand, they m

    ust becopied legibly in black ink, using an italicor technical pen. Right-hand pages m

    ust

    be odd-numbered and left-hand pages

    must be even-num

    bered in the top rightor left corner of the page.

    Avoid creating wind parts that havem

    ultiple parts on a single stave (e.g.,Flutes 1 and 2 should be separate parts).String parts should be created with onepart per section. Com

    plicated stringdivisions should be written on separatestaves. Avoid dividing the m

    usic for thestring section into m

    ultiple parts unlessnecessitated by m

    ultiple and continuousdivision of the voices.

    PaperThe paper for parts should be ofsubstantial quality to avoid show-through ofm

    usic from the reverse side, to ensure

    durability, and to stand up to on-stage windpatterns caused by ventilation system

    s. Them

    inimum

    requirement is usually 60 or 70

    lb. [100 gsm] offset paper.

    The page layout should allowcom

    fortable page turns. Fold out pagesshould be avoided or, if absolutely neces-sary, used sparingly.

    Eight or ten-stave paper should beused for any instrum

    ent that is subject tom

    ultiple ledger lines. Twelve or fourteenstave paper m

    ay be used as long assym

    bols are not crowded and clarity of thenotational elem

    ents is maintained.

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