Music History 2 Study Guide Exam 2

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  • UnitIIExamStudyGuideMusicHistoryII

    HeyFolks,Samedeal,DONOTaddanyonethatwontcontribute.Wehadthisissuelastsemesterandtherewerepeoplethatgotaddedlastminuteandtheyliterallysattherewiththecursoroveronewordforhours.WeWILLtakepeopleout.Thanks.Also,ifyouseesomethingyouthinkiswrongorincomplete,checkit!Wewantthistobethoroughandcorrect.Thislinkisfortheonlinequizzes:http://global.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195379884/student/chapter3/quiz/mc_quiz/THINGSTOCONSIDER1.Describeseveralexamplesoforganicconnectioninmultimovementmusicalgenres.Namespecificworksthatillustratethisprincipleandexplainhowtheorganicunityoccursineachcase.BeethovensFifth

    DemonstratesOrganicismthroughrecurringthemesandmovementstransitioningintoeachother

    HESKICKINGTHEGODDAMNDOORDOWN!!!(Iminthelibrary,keepyourvoicedownplease)

    DerFreischutz(Weber) SimilarlytoBeethoven,Weberweavesthemesthroughouttheworktorepresent

    dramaticideas,but,ratherthanmakeanexclamatorystatementlikeBeethoven,Weberistellingastoryofamansdealwiththedevilinoperaform.

    WagnersRingCycle

  • PrettymucheverythingWagnerwrotewasorganic,butthiswasthemoststudiedpieceofwork.

    Theworkclearlyidentifiesentrancesofcertaincharactersanddramaticideaswithcertainthemes(ex.FlightoftheValkyrie)

    Notonlydothesethemespresentthemselveswitheachcharacter,theyarealsorecognizableinthefirstmovementa.k.a.theoverturewhereallofthethemesarepresented.

    Wagnersmusichadsomenotableinfluence,especiallyintheareasoforchestraldevelopmentsandchromaticharmony.

    2.DiscussthecontributionstoRomanticmusicofthreedifferenthistoricalfigureswhowerenotmusiciansthemselves.(TylerMcMillan?)

    WilliamShakespeare inspiredmanylyricalandtextualelementstooperaandlieds AlsoimportantbecausetheRomanticerawassomewhatreminiscentof

    theRenaissanceera NapoleonBoneparte

    InspiredBeethoventocomposehisSymphonyNo.3Eroica,orHerowhichpresentsavictoriousandtriumphantsoundtoit.Ironically,BeethovenscribbledoutthededicationtoNapoleonbecauseheinvadedViennaatthetimeBeethovenfinishedcomposingthework.

    3.ExplainseveraldifferentwaysinwhichthelivesofRomanticcomposersaffectedtheircompositions.Hector Berlioz fell in love with an Irish actress named Harriet Smithson. In order to get her attention, he wrote a symphony for her, and he called it Symphonie Fantastique. Berlioz wrote a specific program to go along with the piece, to tell the story with words and music. (Program Symphony)

    (Camille)GiuseppeVerdihadlostmanywivesandchildren,leadinghimtobeheartbroken,inwhichthatanguishbleedintohismusic.Oneofhisoperas,LaTraviatashows

  • hisveryhurtinlosingsomeonedearandloved.(Twopeopleinlove,girlacourtesanandboypoor.TheycometogetherintheendonlyforhertodieofTB,whichisasexuallytransmitteddisease.)

    (Camille)RobertSchumannhadaseverediseaseofschizophrenia.Hehadmultiplepersonalitieswhichwouldcomeintoplayinsomeofhiscompositions.(HisdissociativeidentitydisorderledtohimhavingDavidbund,whichwouldshowinhisworks,suchasmanicordepressed.HisworkNo.5:Eusebius(depressive)andNo.6:Florestan(manic))thesepiecesincludedaduplesimplemeterwrittenlikewhichwasasymmetrical/polymetric/hemiolic,withnoresolution.

    4.HowweretheconventionsofClassicmusicalstructuresuitedtoadaptationtothecharacteristicandprogrammaticmusicalstylesofRomanticism?

    Classicisminmusicemphasizedobjectivity,clarity,equilibrium,serenity,grace,

    elegance,andwitclassicalformswererationalandrestrained.Theprimarygoalwasthe

    cultivationofsymmetryandproportionasillustratedinthesonataformwithitsthreesections:

    exposition(oftwocontrastingmusicalthemes),development(ofthetwothemes),and

    recapitulation(areconciliationofthethemes).Thiswasthemusicaloutlineofthefirst

    movementoftheclassicalkeyboardsonata,symphony,stringquartet,trio,andsoon.The

    buildingblocksofthesonataformwerefourmeasurephrasesandclearcutharmonicpatterns

    endowedwithspecificformalfunctions.Throughoutthelastdecadesoftheeighteenthcentury

    sonataformwasoneoftheprimarymeansofmusicalarchitecture,theveryembodimentof

    classicalconciseness,order,andlogic.

    Themusicalformsoftheearlierpartofthenineteenthcenturyremained,generally

    speaking,thoseoftheclassicalperiod.ButtheRomanticcomposerhadaninclinationfor

    exaggerationandlackofbalancethatresultedinthereforgingofthesizeofmusicalworks:thus

    theabundance,inthefirstthreeorfourdecadesofthecentury,ofminiatureformsbothvocal

    andinstrumentaloftenarrangedinsetsorcyclesandsometimesrelatedeitherthrougha

    musicaloraliteraryorautobiographicaltheme.Thetasteforminiatureswasalsopromptedby

  • thefashionofsoires(eveningliteraryandmusicalgatheringsofthearistocracyandbourgeoisie,

    ofwhichofmostenduringfameweretheSchubertiads,associatedwiththecomposerFranz

    PeterSchubert.MostRomanticcomposerswereadeptatpenningsmallscalepianopiecessuch

    asimpromptus,waltzes,nocturnes,barcarolles,arabesques,andtheliketobeplayedinsalons.

    Attheotherendofthecompositionalspectrumtherewasthefascinationwiththesublime

    andcolossal,whichinturnbroughtabouttheswellingofthesymphonytopreviouslyunheardof

    dimensions.Thesheernumberofmeasuresoftheusualfourmovementswasincreasedto

    sometimesalmostunbearablelengths:afirststepinthisdirectionwastakenbyBeethoveninhis

    ThirdSymphony,ofwhichthefirstmovementwasdoublethesizeofcorrespondingmovements

    inhisfirsttwosymphoniesofClassicalextraction.(DavidDJ

    5.DiscussinwhatwaysthemusicofthefuturemovementinthelatenineteenthcenturyrejectedthemusicalassumptionsestablishedintheClassicphaseofmusicalstyle,andinwhatwaysitremainedbasedonthoseassumptions.

    (Camille)Thereweretwodividesinthemovement,somefollowingWagners/Lisztianinclinationofmusic,andthosewhofollowedtheclassicalinclination.ThosewhofollowedWagnerandLiszt,theywantedtopushmusicalcompositionforward.Thosewhofollowedtheclassicalinclinationwantedtocreatemusicformusicssake,thatwasgoaldriven(teleology)andwasbasedonharmony.ThosefollowingWagnerandLisztwentawayfromtriadicchordsandintofourths/quintalchords(AlexanderScriabin)andcreatedsongcycle.6.BothRussianandAmericancomposersinthelatenineteenthcenturyfoundthemselvesgeographicallyattheperipheryofthemainstreamEuropeanculturaltradition.Howandwhydidtheirapproachestomusicalstylediffer?

    (Camille)Nationalismwasnowtakingpartoftheromanticeraofmusic,inwhichnationalitiesweretryingtocomeupwiththeirownmusicthatestablishedtheirnationalityfortheirpeople.

  • Russia:Tritonesinoperas,primarilychoralinworks.UnitedStates:MarchesandBrassbandwerethehighendofnationalismforAmerica.

    Terms,Concepts,andWorks(Pat,Wes,Camille)RomanticismNovelistic,concentratingonemotionalconflictandclimax.(p.304)PeriodofExternalization,HeroicPeriodAperiodwhereBeethovenexperimentedheavilyandbecamefamousforexploringthepotentialofdramaticexpressioninhismusic.(p.310,alsoinclassnotes(March/5th))PeriodofIntrospectionAperiodwhereBeethovenlosthishearingcompletelyandinembarrassment,hecompletelyisolatedhimselffromothersandachievedfulfillmentinhiscompositions.(p.316,ICOULDBEWRONGBUTTHISISWHATIFOUND)(Thisiscorrect!)(Thisisatoaster!)HeiligenstadtTestamentAletterthatwaswrittenbyBeethoventohisbrothersCarlandJohannwhenheretreatedfromViennatothespatownofHeiligenstadttoattempttohealhisearinfection,andultimatelyacceptedthathewouldlosehishearing.(p.310)charactervariationThemannerinwhichvariationsnotonlydecoratethetheme,butalsogiveitadifferentemotionalcontextorpersonality.(p.314)scherzoliterallyjoke,generallyaquick,lightheartedpiece.(Classnotes(p.312,classnotes(March/5th))cyclicismMultiplemovementsofapiecesharingthematicmaterialelisionUsingthecadentialchordofonephraseastheinitialchordofanotherSymphonyNo.3,EroicaBeethovensHeroicthirdsymphony,dedicatedtoNapoleonBonaparte.However,uponNapoleonsascensiontoemperor,Beethovenscratchedhisnameoff.ThissymphonyisalsowidelycreditedwithstartingtheRomanticera,duetolessstructuredchangesinemotion.

  • SymphonyNo.5Anearlyexampleofcyclicism,inwhichtheopeningmotifisrepeatedthroughouttheentiresymphony,andthefinaltwomovementsleaddirectlyintoeachother.SymphonyNo.9,OdetoJoyBroughtbacktheheroicfeelingofthethirdsymphony,withagrandtieinofthethemesthroughthepieceinafinal,famousmovementAndieferneGeliebteasongcyclebyBeethoven,thoughttobededicatedtohisImmortalBeloved,AntonieBrentanosongcyclesongsthatstartedtotiemovementstogetherforasenseofunityinapieceratherthanseparatemovementsbeingalmostlikeseparatepiecesLied(pl.lieder)modifiedstrophicform(Camille)combinesfeaturesofbothstrophicformandthroughcomposed.

    VolkstmlichkeitImpliesfolklikesimplicityandreflectionofthenationalfolkcharacterballadgenerallythroughcomposed,narrativeanddramaticratherthanpoeticinnatureNeueZeitschriftfrMusik(1834present)Ajournalstartedin1834thatisstillpublishedtoday,andinonearticleFranzLisztpublishedanessaydefendingprogrammusic,sayingitallowstheartisttopursuebeautywithouthavingtofearfailureDavidsbundMythicalleaguecreatedbyRobertSchumanntocombatmusicalPhilistines,orpeopleuneducatedinmusic.(p.33334)characterpieceAgenerictermforshort,onemovementpiecesthatexpressaparticularcharacter.(p.345)bagatelleBeethovenstermforcharacterpieces.(p.345)impromptuOneofChopinstermsforcharacterpieces.(p.345)momentmusicalOneofChopinstermsforcharacterpieces(p.345)nocturnePianostylethatresembledcavatinainopera.(p.345)

  • LiedohneWorteSongwithoutwords.(p.345)ariadisorbettoAriasofminorcharacters,duringwhichboxholderswouldeatandtalkuntilthemainperformercameoutagain,gainingthemthenicknamesherbetaria(p.323)drammaThetermGioacchinoRossinipreferedtousetodescribehisseriousoperasratherthanoperaseria.(p.325)scenaedaria

    (Camille)Twoparts:Scena:recitativeAria:cavatina

    tempodimezzo(transition) cabaletta(fasterwithembellishments)cavatinaAslowlyricmovementinanaria.(p.336)cabalettaAfasterandmoreembellishedconcludingmovementtoanaria.(p.336)SingspielAdramaticworkthatincorporatedbothspokenwordandsingingtoconveystory,ratherthanonlysingingasinopera.melodramaWhencharactersspeakratherthansingoveranexpressiveorevocativeorchestralaccompaniment.(p.326).belcantoletvoiceresonaterubatosubtlerhythmicmanipulationandnuanceinperformance(MD)grandoperaAgenregenerallyregardedasbeginningwithAubersLaMuettedePorticci.Awayofdistinguishingbetweentheoperacomique,withitsspokendialogue,andoperathatwassungthroughout.(p.339)operacomiqueAmovementthattooktopicsfromthelifeoftheoppressedclassesanddepictedtiercharactersasconditionedbysituationsthatledthemtounhappyendstheywerepowerlesstoescape.(p.374)mazurkaAnativedanceintheromanticerainstylizedpianosettings.(p.342).

  • polonaiseAnothernativedanceintheromanticerainstylizedpianosettings.(p.342).concertovertureMusicalsectionthatbridgestherecitativewiththearia.incidentalmusicoverturemusicandmovementstocomebetweentheactsofaspokendramaprogramsymphonymultimovementworkwithexplicitliteraturemeaningidefixeObsession(p.347)DiesiraeDayofwrath(p.453).RequiemUsedmusicoriginallyintendedforacollaborativeworktocommemorateRossini,butwasfinishedbyVerdialoneanddedicatedtohisfriendAlessandroManzoni.(p.371).collegnoPlayingwiththewoodofthebow,ratherthanthehair.(p.349).plotarchetypeARomanticliteraryshapefoundinprogramsymphonies.(p.350)NewGermanSchoolWhatprogressivecomposerswereidentifiedasandtheyadoptedtheirsloganthemusicofthefuture.ThefounderswereLisztandRichardWagner.Theyinsistedthatemotionalcontentsupersededabstractform.(p.356).TheMusicoftheFutureTheNewGermanSchoolsslogan.symphonicpoemsinglemovementorchestralworkinwhichformisnotdeterminedbyabstractcompositionalproceduresbutbytheprogram.GesamtkunstwerkAuniversalartworkorcollectiveartworkthatrepresentsthecollectiveexperienceoftheculturefromwhichitproceedsandalsosynthesizesintooneentitygestural,verbal,andmusicaltypesofexpression.(p.359)musicdramaWhatthegesamtkunstwerkwaslatercalled.Thestructureisthatofthedrama,dictatedbytheartisticcontent.Itservesasameanstocarryoutthedramaticpurpose.(p.360).

  • unendlichemelodiemelodythatintentionallyavoideddefiningformbylargelyremovingindicatorssuchascadencesandobviousfiller,andassuchseemedtobeendless.DerRingdesNibelungenLibrettocomposedbyRichardWagnerforfourmusicdramas,withdifferentkeyssignifyingdifferentplaces,makingthemusicalconstructionandplotfollowasingledramaticcontourTristanundIsoldeTragiclovestorybyWagner,famousforthealmostunresolvedTristanchordTristanchordUnresolvedchordinTristanundIsolde,whileitisahalfdiminishedseventhchord,inTristanundIsoldeitcouldalsobeasubdominantIIwithasuspended13grundthemen(leitmotiv)basicthemesastheywerecalledbyWagner,aleitmotivisathemethatdenotesacharacterorplacelyricoperafocusedonexpressionoffeelingratherthanthespectacularnatureofthegrandoperamlodieFrenchsongs,calleddifferentlyfromchansonandbasedoffoftheGermanliedtonepoem(alsoknownasasymphonicpoem)singlemovementorchestralworkwithanexplicitprogram,usuallypoeticornarrativeinnature.realismtopicsbasedontheoppressedclasses,leadingcharacterstounhappyendingsthattheywerepowerlesstoescape.ThismovementwasderivedfromRomanticspessimisticrealizationthattheywerenotgoingtorighttheinjusticesofsociety.verismoViolentopera.Containsmuchmoredemandingvocallines,reinforcedbyheavyorchestralbacking,includingchromaticharmonytoaddtothetension.exoticismTheapplicationofnewtonalpatternsandinspirationderivedfrommusicalstylesfromoutsidetheleadingmusicalnationsofEurope.(p.375)UniversalExhibitionof1889FirstlargescaleexposureofwesternEuropeanstomusicfromtheFarEast,performedbynativemusicians

  • NationalismTheeffortofmanycountries,bothinandoutofmusic,toattempttoachieveindependencefromonetoanotherMoguchaykuchka(MightyFive)FiveRussiancomposerswhoreliedonfolkmusicratherthantraditionalconservatorytrainingtoachieveauniquemusicalstyleforRussia.ConsistedofchemistAlexanderBorodin,militaryengineerCsarCui,civilservantModestMusorgsky,navalofficerNicolaiRimskyKorsakov,andtheonlyprofessionalmusician,MilyBalakirev.SecondNewEnglandSchoolAgroupofAmericancomposerswhofollowedtheGermanpatternofstudythethreemostprominentcomposerswereJohnKnowlesPaine,Treatises,Collections,andWorksTraitdinstrumentation(1843)DasKunstwerkderZukunft(1850)Names:JohannWolfgangvonGoethe(17491832)LudwigvanBeethoven(17701827)FriedrichSchiller(17591805)JohannRudolfZumsteeg(17601802)CarlMariavonWeber(17861826)GiacomoMeyerbeer(17911864)EugneScribe(17911861)GiocchinoRossini(17921868)FranzSchubert(17971828)GaetanoDonizetti(17971848)VincenzoBellini(180135)HectorBerlioz(180369)FannyMendelssohnHensel(180547)FelixMendelssohnBartholdy(180947)FrdricChopin(181049)RobertSchumann(181056)FranzLiszt(181186)GiuseppeVerdi(18131901)RichardWagner(181383)AdolpheSax(181494)

  • AntoninDvok(18411904)CharlesGounod(18181893)ClaraWieckSchumann(181996)CsarFranck(182290)BedichSmetana(182484)AntonBruckner(182496)EduardHanslick(18251904)StephenCollinsFoster(182664)LouisMoreauGottschalk(182969)JohannesBrahms(183397)GeorgesBizet(18381875)ArrigoBoito(18421918)GiacomoPuccini(18581924)HugoWolf(18601903)GustavMahler(18601911)RichardStrauss(18641949)AlexanderScriabin(18721915)EdvardGrieg(18431907)EdwardElgar(18571934)IsaacAlbniz(18601909)MikhailGlinka(18041857)AlexanderBorodin(183387)CesarCui(18351918)MilyBalakirev(18371919)ModestMussorgsky(183981)NicolaiRimskyKorsakov(18441908)PyotrIlyichChaikovsky(18401893)JohnKnowlesPaine(18391906)GeorgeWhitefieldChadwick(18541931)EdwardMacDowell(18601908)HoratioParker(18631919)AmyBeach(18671944)

    UnitIIListeningandScoreStudyGuideExample1Symphony:LudwigvanBeethoven,SymphonyNo.3inEflatMajor:Allegroconbrio(movementone)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ft9lJBXW5rg(DavidDJ)

  • Form:SonataAllegro(Expanded)Example2Lied:FranzSchubert,GretchenamSpinnradehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MY0eeotSDi8(DavidDJ)Form:Strophic/RondoInstrumentation:FortePiano,VocalistFemaleExample3CharacterPieces:RobertSchumann,Carnaval,Op.9:Excerptshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VELPD6FVylA(DavidDJ)Example4CharacterPiece:FrdricChopin,NocturneinDflatMajor,Op.27,No.2https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJ8RVjm49hE(DavidDJ)Form:RondoABACACodaTexture:HomophonicSoloPianoExample5KeyboardWork:FranzLiszt,Troistudesdeconcert:No.3:Unsospirohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pqy9KGqssc(DavidDJ)Keyboardgymnasticsmostlyarpeggiatedbass,simplemelodylineExample6ProgramSymphony:HectorBerlioz,Symphoniefantastique,DreamofaWitchesSabbath(movementfive)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVUAR8Nk8xQ(DavidDJ)(TylerMcMillan)tempochangeshintatsectionchangesExample7ChamberWork:ClaraWieckSchumann,PianoTrioinGMinor,Op.17:Andante(movementthree)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJRkjbXDlY(DavidDJ)

  • Example8EarlyRomanticOpera:CarlMariavonWeber,DerFreischtz,ActII,Finale:WolfsGlenScenehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDI3Kstg5Ok(DavidDJ)

    Basedondiminishedchord Bothchorusandsolosingersfeatured

    Example9MatureRomanticOpera:GiuseppeVerdi,Latraviata,ActIII,ScenaandDuethttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qnIBXK6LUc(DavidDJ)Male/FemaleDuetExample10LateRomanticSymphony:JohannesBrahms,SymphonyNo.4inEMinor,Op.98:Allegroenergicoapassionata(movementfour)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhmCNkWCUtA(DavidDJ)Form:ThemeandVariations(Originalthemestatedinthefirsteightbars,30variationsthroughoutrestofthepiece)(DavidDJ)Example11March:JohnPhillipSousa,TheStarsandStripesForeverhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRn9chmRAY(DavidDJ)Example12OrchestralSongCycle:GustavMahler,Kindertotenlieder:No.1,NunwilldieSonnsohellaufgehhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqTyEKB64EE(DavidDJ)

    Multiple Choice Quiz - 19 AnthonyBernabel

    Animportantmodelforthesuccessofaheroicpersonalityinpoliticallifeat the

    turnofthenineteenthcenturywasNapoleon Bonaparte.

  • Beethoven's middleperiodissometimesknownashisheroic period.

    The HeiligenstadtTestamentwasBeethoven'sreflection onhisdeafnessandhis

    vocation.

    ThepoetwhowrotethetextBeethovenusedinhisNinthSymphonywasFriedrich

    Schiller.

    TwoimportantexamplesofthesongcycleareAndieferneGeliebteandDieschne

    Mllerin.

    FranzSchubertcombinedthefolkidealinsongwith personalinterpretationofthe

    songtext.

    William ShakespearewasidealizedbyearlyRomanticopera librettistsbecause

    heprovidedamodelofagreatartistwho succeededdespitehisdisregardfor

    standardrulesofartisticform.

    Italianopera composersintheearlynineteenthcenturyoftenusedtheprocessof

    parodyto recycletheirmusicinordertokeepupwiththedemandfornew works.

    Therescue operawascreatedinFrance around1800.

    Schubert neverachievedmuchpublicacclaimandreliedforhisdailyliving onthe

    generosityofhisfriends.

  • Multiple Choice Quiz 20

    AnthonyBernabel

    The composer Robert Schumannworked as a music critic and founded the Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik, an independent music journal.

    TheItaliancomposersoftheRomanticperioddevelopedastructureforthelargesolooperaticnumberintwolargeparts.The"dissimilarduet"wasdesignedtoexpressdramaticconflictinoperabythecomposerGaetanoDonizetti.EugneScribemadehisimportantcontributionstothehistoryofmusicasalibrettist..NicoloPaganinimadehisimportantcontributionstothehistoryofmusicasavirtuosoperformer.

    1.

    Themazurkawasatypeofcharacter pieceforpianobasedonaPolishdanceandusedby Chopin.

    Berlioz'sSymphoniefantastiqueisanexampleofthegenreprogramsymphony.

    ThecomposerHectorBerliozwasoneofthemostimaginativeorchestratorsoftheRomanticperiodandevenwroteatreatiseonthesubject.

    CyclicunificationstandsasanabstractsymbolinmusicoftheRomanticthinker'ssearchfortheunityinallthings.

  • TheconductorFelixMendelssohnBartholdyhasanimportantplaceinmusichistoryforhisroleinrevivingtheworksofprecedinggenerationsinhisperformances.

    Multiple Choice Quiz - 21 AnthonyBernabel.

    TheprogressivecomposersworkinginGermanyintheperiodafter1850became

    knownastheNew GermanSchool.

    Inhissymphonicpoems,Liszt employedthematic transformationtodevelop

    structuralcoherencein unconventionalforms.

    Wagner'sTristanundIsoldeis anexampleofthegenrehecalledmusic

    drama.

    AmusicalideainWagner'smature works,oftenassociatedwithanideaor

    characterintheplotand developedinsymphonicstyleintheorchestra,isusually

    calleda Leitmotiv,a termthecomposerhimselfdidnotuse.

    ThecomposerBrahms tookupthetraditionofMendelssohnandSchumannand

    laterprovidedimportantsupporttothecareerofDvok.

    Verdi'slasttwooperaswerebothadaptedfromworksofWilliamShakespeare,who

    wasanimportantfigurein nineteenthcenturyliterarythought.

    ThepostRomanticcomposerGustav Mahlerbasedseveralofhissymphonieson

    materialtakenfromhisownLieder.

  • Theverismooperaemployedplotsthatfeaturedviolentemotional outbreaksin

    charactersfromthelowerclassesandamusicalstylebasedondeclamatorysinging

    andpowerfulorchestration.

    Composersseekingtorevitalize theEuropeanmusicaltraditioninthelatenineteenth

    centuryturnedtoexoticism,theuseofmaterialsderivedfrommusicalstylesfrom

    outsidethe leadingnationsofEurope.

    Themoguchaykuchkawasanimportantgroupofnationalist composersinthe

    latenineteenthcentury.

    ThanksforthisTony,thiswasagoodideatopostthemultchoicequestions