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    Emotions

    BY

    Muneer and Jawad

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    AFFECTAFFECT

    A broad range of feelings that people experience.

    Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions ormoods. Feelings associated with motivation

    Positive things are going well, keep doing what you aredoing

    Negative something wrong, change behavior Related with goals

    Positive succeeding toward/accomplishing goals Negative something is interfering/blocking goals

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    EmotionsEMOTIONS

    Intense feelings directed toward someone orsomething

    Caused by a specific event

    Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes)Usually very specificanger, fear, sadness,happiness, disgust, etc.

    Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions(visual cues)

    Action-oriented (plan to do something)

    Remember ,

    Emotions cannot be neutral.

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    MoodsMOODS

    Less intense feelings that lack a specific cause

    Cause is often general and unclear

    Last longer than emotions (hours or days)

    More general (either positive affect or negativeaffect)

    Generally not indicated by distinct expressions

    Cognitive in nature (thinking or brooding)

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    Affect, Emotions and Moods

    MoodsFeelings that tend to beless intense than emotionsand that lack a specificcause

    EmotionsIntense feelings that aredirected at someone orsomething

    AffectA broad range of emotions that people experience

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    Basic Emotions

    There appear to be six basic emotions:

    1. Anger

    2. Fear

    3. Happiness

    4. Surprise

    5.

    Sadness6. Disgust

    All other emotions are subsumed under these six May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion:

    Happiness surprise fear sadness anger

    disgust

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    BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OFEMOTIONS

    Emotions originate in the brains limbic system, whichis different for each

    person

    LIMBIC SYSTEM when active, you see things in anegative light

    Inactive limbic system = experience positive emotions(happiness, joy)

    Active limbic system = negative emotions dominate(anger, guilt)

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    Sources of Emotions and Moods PersonalityPersonality is a key component and will definitely impact the intensity

    of the emotions we feelDO YOU LET YOUR FEELINGS SHOW? -- EXTRAVERTS

    HIDE Your EMOTIONS -- INTROVERTS Day and Time of the WeekThere is a common pattern for all of us

    NEGATIVE MOODS

    HIGHEST ON SUNDAYS & MONDAYS (BEGINNING OF THEWEEK)

    POSITIVE MOODS

    -- HIGHEST AT THE END OF THE WEEK (THURSDAY SATURDAY

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    Weather

    Weather is thought to have an impact on our emotions, but there is noproven effect. DO WE HAVE MORE POSITIVE MOODS ON BRIGHT, SUNNY DAYS

    THAN RAINY ONES?CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF - MOOD AND THEWEATHER ARE NOT RELATED

    StressEven low levels of constant stress can worsen moods

    Stressful daily events negatively affect employees moods.

    Constant, prolonged exposure to stress leads todepression and negative feelings.

    Social Activities

    Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods

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    Sleep Poor sleep quality increases negative affect SLEEP QUALITY

    AFFECTS MOOD (75% not getting enough sleep)

    SLEEP-DEPRIVED WORKERS

    greater feelings of fatigue, anger, and hostilityimpaireddecision-making & alertness

    Exercise Does somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed

    people

    AgeYOUNG PEOPLE DO NOT EXPERIENCE MORE POSITIVE MOODS THAN

    OLDER PEOPLE

    NEGATIVE EMOTIONS SEEM TO OCCUR LESS AS PEOPLE GET OLDER

    Emotional Experience tends to improve with age as we age,we feel fewer negative emotions.

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    Gender and Emotions

    CONTRASTED WITH MEN, WOMEN ARE

    MORE IN TOUCH WITH THEIR FEELINGS

    SHOW GREATER EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION

    EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS MORE INTENSELY

    MORE LIKELY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS (except anger)

    ARE BETTER AT READING NONVERBAL CUES

    CAUSES OF THIS?

    THE DIFFERENT WAYS MEN AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN SOCIALIZED INSOCIETY

    MEN EXPECTED TO BE TOUGH, BRAVE, DONT CRY, ETC.

    WOMEN EXPECTED TO BE NURTURING, WARM, AND FRIENDLY (Smile)

    WOMEN JUST HAVE A BETTER ABILITY TO READ OTHERS & PRESENT THEIREMOTIONS THAN MEN

    WOMEN MAY HAVE A GREATER NEED FOR SOCIAL APPROVAL &A HIGHER PROPENSITY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE EMOTIONS, SUCH

    AS HAPPINESS.

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    External Constraints on Emotions

    OrganizationalInfluences

    CulturalInfluences

    IndividualEmotions

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    Organizational Influences

    Most organizations strive to be emotion-free

    * Emotional Labor

    A situation in which an employee expresses organizationallydesired emotions during interpersonal transactions.

    Emotional dissonanceis when an employee has to projectone emotion while feeling another one

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    Felt vs. Displayed Emotions

    Felt: the individuals actual emotions

    Displayed: required or appropriate emotions

    Surface Acting: displaying appropriately butnot feeling those emotions internally

    Deep Acting: changing internal feelings tomatch display rules - very stressful

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    CULTURAL INFLUENCES Cultures vary in:

    Degree to which people experience emotions Interpretation of emotions Norms for the expression of emotions For Example

    For

    Americans smiling is a sign of friendliness viewed positively

    Muslims - smiling is a sign of physical attractionso women dontsmile at men

    Japanese - smiling indicates a lack of intelligence (an ignorantairhead!)

    French make no effort to hide their personal feelings aboutcustomers

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    Continued. Some questions that need to be answered are: Do people experience emotions equally?

    No. Culture can determine type, frequency, and depth ofexperienced emotions

    Do people interpret emotions the same way? Yes. Negative emotions are seen as undesirable and

    positive emotions are desirable However, value of each emotion varies across cultures

    Do norms of emotional expression vary? Yes. Some cultures have a bias against emotional

    expression; others demand some display of emotion

    How the emotions are expressed may makeInterpretation outside of ones culture difficult

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    Emotional Intelligence

    Ones ability to detect and manage emotional cues and

    information

    FIVE DIMENSIONS

    Self-awareness

    Being aware of what youre feeling

    Self-management

    The ability to manage your own emotions and impulses

    Self-motivation

    The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures

    Empathy

    The ability to sense how others are feeling

    Social Skills

    The ability to handle the emotions of others

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    PROS & CONS OFEMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

    STRENGTHSINTUITIVE APPEAL

    - being street smart and socially intelligentmakes sense

    IT PREDICTS JOB PERFORMANCE

    - correlations found are significantITS BIOLOGICALLY BASED

    - its neurological and affects decision-making

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    ContinuedCAUTIONS

    ITS TOO VAGUE/TOO BROAD- no one is sure what this concept is

    - is it intelligence? self-discipline? empathy?or self-awareness?

    IT ISNT MEASURED CONSISTENTLY

    - we havent used good methodologyIS IT VALID?

    - its so closely related to personality andintelligence

    - when you control for these factors, there isnt

    anything left thats unique

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    HOW MANAGERS MIGHTUSE EMOTIONS AND MOODS

    Selection

    EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs. Decision Making

    Positive emotions can lead to better decisions. Creativity

    Positive mood increases flexibility, openness, andcreativity.

    Motivation Positive mood affects expectations of success; feedback

    amplifies this effect. Leadership

    Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from

    organizational leaders.

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    Continued. Negotiation

    Emotions, skillfully displayed, can affect negotiations

    Customer Services Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers

    which, in turn, affects customer relationships Job Attitudes

    Can carry over to home, but dissipate overnight Deviant Workplace Behaviors

    Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actionsthat violate norms and threaten the organization)

    Managers Influence Leaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise

    employees increase positive moods in the workplace.

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    Implications for Managers Understand the role of emotions and moods to

    explain and predict behavior Emotions and moods can increase motivation Emotional labor recognizes that certain feelings

    can be part of a jobs requirements Intense emotions can interfere with performance

    of complex jobs

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