MPP Media Literacy

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<p>LSE Media Policy Project:Expert meeting on media literacyLSE, 12 April 2011</p> <p>Timetable10.00 Arrival and coffee 10.30 Introduction to the Media Policy Project: Zoe Sujon 10.40 Media literacy: key issues facing UK policy and research: Sonia Livingstone 10.55 Research trends: is the promotion of media literacy effective? Yinhan Wang 11.10 Q&amp;A 11.30 Panel discussion: media literacy policy, practice and prospects Monica Bulger, Oxford Internet Institute John Newbigin, Chairman of Creative England Sophie Jones, Channel 4 Cary Bazalgette, Chair of the Media Education Association 11.50 Q&amp;A 12.30 Conclusions and next steps: Zoe Sujon NB Chatham House rules + record the discussion</p> <p>The LSE Media Policy ProjectThe Media Policy Project aims to establish a deliberative relationship between policy makers, civil society actors, media professionals and relevant media research. We want policy makers to have timely access to the best policyrelevant research and better access to the views of civil society.</p> <p>Policy</p> <p>Civil society</p> <p>Research</p> <p>Transnational Media Cultures Global, comparative and diasporic perspectives</p> <p>Innovation and Governance Policy and regulation in the information society in the global north and south</p> <p>Media and Communications Critical and engaged social science</p> <p>PolisMediation and Digital Literacies Audiences, representations and identities in everyday life The Mediated Public Sphere Political communication, civic engagement and journalism ethics</p> <p>LSE Media Policy Project</p> <p> Organized thematically Media Policy Briefs 1: Creative Destruction and Copyright Protection: Regulatory Responses to File-sharing 2: Media Literacy and UK Policy 3: Digital Participation and Universal Service 4: Media Plurality 5: UK Media Policy and the LSE Media Policy Project</p> <p> Project overview September 2010 July 2011</p> <p> Deliberative strategy Social media Expert meetings and events Media policy network Media Policy Briefs</p> <p> Concluding event (June)</p> <p>Media literacy:Key issues facing UK policy and research</p> <p>Sonia Livingstone</p> <p>Media literacy a long past and a short historyThe long past Especially media education for children (cf. work of BFI and others in the UK) Developed curriculum materials though uncertain place in the curriculum Variable but mounting support and initiatives internationally (e.g. Unesco, OECD) Unresolved debate over purposes (empowerment, protection)</p> <p>The recent history Burgeoning new initiatives for adults (all, disadvantaged) and children UK Communications Act 2003 (section 11) EC Communication (2007) &amp; Recommendation (2009); AVMS Directive (2007), High Level Expert Group (2008), Digital Agenda (2010, following the Lisbon Agenda, 2000) A popular concept (health literacy, financial literacy, information literacy, ethical literacy)</p> <p>Communications Act 2003Section 11: Duty to promote media literacy to bring about, or to encourage others to bring about, a better public understanding of the nature and characteristics of material published by means of the electronic media; to bring about, or to encourage others to bring about, a better public awareness and understanding of the processes by which such material is selected, or made available, for publication by such means; to bring about, or to encourage others to bring about, the development of a better public awareness of the available systems by which access to material published by means of the electronic media is or can be regulated; to bring about, or to encourage others to bring about, the development of a better public awareness of the available systems by which persons to whom such material is made available may control what is received and of the uses to which such systems may be put; and to encourage the development and use of technologies and systems for regulating access to such material, and for facilitating control over what material is received, that are both effective and easy to use.</p> <p>Definitions and tensionsDefinitions The ability to access, analyse, evaluate and communicate messages in a variety of forms. (National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy, Aufderheide, 1993) The ability to access, understand and create communications in a variety of contexts. (Ofcom) Media literacy relates to the ability to access the media, to understand and critically evaluate different aspects of the media and media content and to create communications in a variety of contexts. (EC) Minimal and maximal expectations of the population how much is enough? Competitive society (workplace skills, consumer choice) or social inclusion/participation Protection against media harms and/or engagement with media opportunities Individualisation of risk to lighten the regulatory burden? A matter of individual skill or environmental design and provision? Relevance to familiar and new media Media literacy for all? For the disadvantaged? Children only?</p> <p>Tensions </p> <p>Political supportThe previous government Inserted media literacy into the Communication Act Included a National Media Literacy Plan in the Digital Britain agenda Appointed a Minister and a Champion for Digital Inclusion National Plan for Digital Participation (2010) with substantial funding</p> <p>The present government Continues to support digital inclusion activities (Race Online 2012 ) Might see media literacy as central to the Big Society But has cancelled the budget for the National Plan Is preparing for a new Communications Act Media literacy - a priority: Ofcoms work, digital inclusion, school curriculum, vocational education, Bailey Review, Media Smart, BBC</p> <p>What can researchers contribute? An independent perspective on policy action can urge ambitious aims Expertise in measurement media literacy poses particular difficulties Past public knowledge initiatives show benefits often uneven, unequal or unproven Knowledge gap findings - media literacy wont spread all by itself the rich get richer New research and analysis of the research literature - for example:- adults more easily gain operational (functional) skills than more strategic or complex skills, and many (older, disabled, minorities) struggle even to gain basic skills (Deursen &amp; van Dijk, 2009) - students from more educated backgrounds are more likely to engage in content creation and sharing, and more digital skills enable in more creativity; gender differences no longer significant (Hargittai and Walejko, 2008) - people tend to evaluate the trustworthiness of websites (e.g. for health information) by features of site design (Sillence et al, 2007) - opportunities to learn about online civic participation results in more participation (Kahne et al, 2010)</p> <p>Research trends:Is the promotion of media literacy effective?</p> <p>Yinhan Wang</p> <p>Introduction Ofcoms Media Literacy Reports for children and adults have been carried out since 2005.</p> <p>They cover the key dimensions of media literacy: access and use, critical evaluation, digital skills and education, communication and creation, civic participation.</p> <p>Here we offer a selective reworking and analysis of a small proportion/selection of Ofcoms data, in order to inform the discussion. Our interpretation of data does not represent Ofcoms perspectives.</p> <p>Thanks to Fiona Lennox! Any mistakes are our own.</p> <p>The benefits of overcoming barriers to access and use of the internet for health information More high than low SES adults have internet at home. Among adults with internet at home, more high SES adults search for information about an illness than low SES adults. Among adults who search for information about an illness, there is no SES difference in using NHS Direct. SES inequalities persist even given equivalent access to the internet. If barriers to access and use are overcome, all can benefit.90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2005 2007 2009 About an illness (ABC1) About an illness (C2DE) Use NHS Direct (ABC1) Use NHS Direct (C2DE)</p> <p>NB Base: Red lines: All internet using adults Green lines: All internet using adults who use the internet for health information</p> <p>Source: UK Adults Media Literacy (Ofcom 2006, 2008, 2010)</p> <p>Inequalities in critical evaluation: checking the reliability of new websites Through experience or guidance, adults have learned to check the reliability of websites. Children have also learned but have more to learn: 87% believe all/most information on sites they use for schoolwork is true (2009). Children taught in school about the internet do more checking (2005). Older (55+) and lower SES adults are less likely to check reliability. People are gaining critical literacy, but gaps remain.Source: UK Adults / Childrens Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2006, 2008, 2010)</p> <p>90 80 0 60 50 40 0 20 10 0 2005 200 2009NB Base: 2005 All internet using adults 2007/09 All internet using adults who visit new websites</p> <p>hec sites (16+) hec sites (12 15)</p> <p>Critical evaluation: the internet lags behind in public understanding of who funds the media The public understands how television and radio are funded. Understanding that search engines are funded by advertising lags far behind. Women, older (55+) and low SES households give fewest correct answers. Without specific intervention, it seems unlikely that critical understanding of the internet (which is heavily used for information) will catch up.</p> <p>0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 10 0 200N ase: All adults</p> <p>TV ommercial TV radio ommercial radio Search engines 200 200</p> <p>Source: UK Adults Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2010)</p> <p>Digital skills among adults: the same or worse in 200 than in 2007 E-skills are central to the ECs Digital Agenda. Some skills are fairly common, but SES differences persist. Interest and confidence in skills have not improved since 2005: Viruses: 57% (2005), 59% (2009) Filter: 52% (2007), 47% (2009) Debates: 26% (2007), 21% (2009) Without confident skills in using the internet, expanding the range of online activities will be impeded. Interest is also vital for the cultivation of skills and use.Source: UK Adults Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2006, 2010)</p> <p>0 60 0 0 0 20 10 0 AB C1 C2 DE Jo B oc f</p> <p>NB B : All internet using adults (2009)</p> <p>Formal education about media: is there potential for more provision? Children are being taught about the internet and about TV. As children use the internet ever younger, more are taught about it. 2005-2009 have seen no rise in adults formal learning about digital technology, and no rise in their interest in learning about it. Given the time they spend on TV, it could be argued that children need more teaching about TV. 2 % of adults say they are interested in learning more about digital technology worth providing more?Source: UK Adults / Childrens Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2006, 2008 &amp; 2010)</p> <p>90 80 0 60 50 40 0 20 10 0 2005NB B Children aged 8-15</p> <p>o o TV (8 11) o o TV (12 15) o o (8 11) o o (12 15)</p> <p>200</p> <p>2009</p> <p>Understanding: the public is concerned about media content/platforms The public is most concerned about the internet. Those who use the internet are more concerned than those who do not. Ethnic minority groups are more concerned about computer viruses/security, mobile and gaming, whereas older people and disabled people are more concerned about the television. Levels of concern may indicate desire for regulation and/or for media literacy.Source: UK Adults Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2010)70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 nternet elevision o ile aming Radio oncerned</p> <p>NB Base: Adult users of each platform</p> <p>Communicating and creating on the internet: adults who use the internet Differences by age are striking. If communication/creativity is a goal, older people are not benefiting. The low take up of maintaining a website/blogging by younger adults belies the digital native rhetoric. Without improved design and/or guidance, communicative and creative uses of the internet may not become widespread.0 0 0 0 0 0 20 10 0 1 2 2</p> <p>Socia networ ing B ogging</p> <p>NB Base: All internet using adults (2009)</p> <p>Source: UK Adultss Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2010)</p> <p>Communicating and creating on the internet: children 12-1 who use the internet at home Making a website slowly caught hold but was replaced by social networking. Social networking sites (and online albums) make (limited, formatted) content creation easy. Making and uploading a video remains unpopular/difficult (despite the advent of YouTube). Without improved design and/or guidance, creative uses of the internet may not become widespread.</p> <p>NB Base: All children aged 12-15 who use the internet at home</p> <p>Source: UK Childrens Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2006, 2008 &amp; 2010)</p> <p>Civic participation: adults who use the internet Differences by SES are striking: if civic participation online is a goal, lower SES adults miss out.1 1 12 200 200</p> <p>The low take up of civic participation 10 of all, however, is also striking. 8 Other research shows repeatedly than low political efficacy and trust account for low participation (people must believe their contribution will be responded to). Without improved support or, possibly, response, civic uses of the internet may not become widespread.</p> <p>2 0 1 2Measures: 2008 Finding info about public services provided by local or national government; Looking at political/ campaign/ issues websites 2010 Finding info about public services provided by local or national government; Looking at political/ campaign/ issues websites Completing government processes online</p> <p>Source: UK Adults Media Literacy (Ofcom, 2008, 2010)</p> <p>Discussion Has the past decade of activities improved media literacy among the public? Have we missed out important issues or activities in this field? Comments/suggestions on the evidence we have presented? Will media literacy progress naturally and do knowledge gaps matter? What are the priorities for media literacy, what initiatives are needed? What role (any? same?) should media literacy have in the new Comms Act? What evidence could support a renewed media literacy agenda? How are the demands on media (digital) literacy changing as ever more of our lives are mediated?</p> <p>Panel discussionMonica Bulger, Oxford Internet Institute John Newbigin, Creative England Sophie Jones, Channel 4 Cary Bazalgette, Media Education Association</p> <p>Conclusions and next steps</p> <p> LSE Media Policy Project Policy network Blog Media Policy Brief</p> <p>LSE Media Policy Project</p> <p> Thank-you! Blog: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/mediapolicyproject/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/#!/LSEmediapolicy Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/LSE-MediaPolicy-Project/154733394550955</p>