Mp3 Hardware Audio Decoder

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  • MP3 HARDWARE AUDIO DECODER

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Master of Technology

    In

    Telematics and Signal Processing

    By

    RAMESH NAIDU G 20507024

    Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela 2007

  • MP3 HARDWARE AUDIO DECODER

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Master of Technology

    In

    Telematics and Signal Processing

    By

    RAMESH NAIDU G 20507024

    Under the Guidance of

    Prof. S. K. PATRA

    Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela 2007

  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ROURKELA

    CERTRIFICATE

    This is to certify that the thesis entitled, MP3 Hardware Audio Decoder submitted by Mr.

    Ramesh Naidu G (20507024) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

    Master of Technology Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering with

    specialization in Telematics and Signal Processing during session 2006-2007 at National

    Institute Of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University), is an authentic work by him under

    my supervision and guidance.

    The work reported here was carried out by him at Texas Instruments (TI), Bangalore under

    joint supervision of Fitzgerald J Archibald (TI) and me. To the best of my knowledge, the

    matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the

    award of any Degree or Diploma.

    Date

    Prof. S. K. Patra

    Dept. of E.C.E National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela-769008

  • ACKNOWLDGEMENTS

    On the submission of my Thesis report of MP3 Hardware Audio Decoder, I would like to

    express my thanks to my supervisor Prof. S.K. Patra, Professor, Department of ECE for his

    valuable support and guidance throughout my project. He encouraged me to do my project

    work at Texas Instruments, Bangalore. I deeply thank for excellent support provided by

    him from institute. His motivation helped me to complete the project successfully.

    I want to thank Prof. K.K. Mahapatra, Prof. G.S. Rath, and Prof. G. Panda for providing

    me valuable education during my 1st Year. Their teachings accompanied by experiences are

    great source of inspiration.

    I would like to thank Fitzgerald J Archibald, Texas Instruments, Bangalore, for guiding me

    in the project at Texas Instruments, Bangalore. His excellent knowledge on practical aspects

    and personal life experiences were good source of inspiration. I would like to thank Stephen

    H Li, Mohamed F Mansour and Michael O Polley for the support in the project.

    I would to thank all my friends who made my stay in Rourkela an unforgettable and

    rewarding experience.

    Last but not least I would like to thank my parents for their valuable support and guidance

    through out my project work and career.

    Ramesh Naidu G M.Tech (Telematics and Signal Processing)

    NIT Rourkela

    i

  • CONTENTS

    Title Page Number Acknowledgements i Contents ii Abstract iv List of Figures v List of Tables vi 1) Introduction

    1.1) Introduction 1 1.2) MPEG 1 1.3) Goal of the thesis 2 1.4) Background Literature Survey 2 1.5) Thesis Contribution 2 1.6) Thesis Outline 3

    2) MPEG theory 2.1) Introduction 4 2.2) Compression of audio data 4 2.3) Freedom of Implementation 4 2.4) BitRate 5 2.5) Sampling Frequency 5 2.6) Channel Modes 6 2.6.1)Joint Stereo 6 2.7) Analysis Polyphase filterbank 6 2.8) Modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) 8 2.9) Psychoacoustic Model 9 2.10) Summary 10

    3) MPEG Audio Decoding Process

    3.1) Introduction 11 3.2) Header 11 3.3) Layer I 12 3.4) Layer II 12 3.5) Layer III 12 3.6) Frame Size 12 3.7) Decoding Operation of Layer I and II 15 3.8) Decoding Operation of Layer III 15 3.9) Summary

    4) MP3 Hardware Description 4.1) Introduction 16 4.2) Bit Processing Unit (BPU) 17 4.3) Instruction Set 18 4.4) Arithmetic Unit (AU) 18 4.5) DIP DMA 19 4.6) PCM DMA 19

    ii

  • 4.7) Typical Operation 20 4.8) Summary 20

    5) BPU Programming Hardware Description 5.1) Introduction 21 5.2) Development Life Cycle 21 5.3) Memory Management 23 5.4) Cycles Optimization 25 5.5) Important Coding Rules 26 5.6) BPU modules 27 5.7) DIP, BPU, AU, PCM, CIP operation 30 5.8) Summary 32

    6) Test and Results 6.1) Introduction 33

    6.2) Revision Control System (RCS) 33 6.3) Model Sim Description 35 6.4) Model Sim Command Window 35 6.5) Assembly Window 35 6.6) Signal Window 35 6.7) Memory and Cycles consumption of each layer 36 6.8) PCM sample Verification 38 6.9) Summary 38

    7) Conclusions 7.1) Introduction 39

    7.2) Limitations of Work 39 7.3) Future Scope of Work 39

    7.4) Conclusion 39 References 40 Annexure-I 41 1. Paper Submitted to IEEE 2. Confirmation Email from IEEE

    iii

  • Abstract

    The thesis titled MP3 Hardware Audio decoder describes about the hardware and software

    resources for decoding the MPEG1 bitstream. The dual architecture model in the hardware

    with instruction set tailored for audio decoding helps to reduce number of cycles and

    memory. The coding was done in assembly and testing was carried out in model Sim, with

    compliance bit streams for correctness of decoder.

    iv

  • List of Figures

    Figure Name Page Number 1.1 Sketch of the basic structure of a decoder 2

    2.1 Mpeg Encoding Process 7

    2.2 Window types 8

    2.3 Window switching decision 9

    3.1 Frame Layout of Layers 11

    3.2 Header Structure 11

    3.3 Layer I and Layer II decoder flow chart 13

    3.4 Layer III decoder flow chart 15

    4.1 MP3 Hardware Block Diagram 16

    4.2 BPU Architecture 17

    4.3 DIP DMA operation 19

    4.4 PCM DMA operation 19

    5.1 Development Life Cycle 21

    5.2 Structured Program 22

    5.3 Test System Setup 23

    5.4 Memory Sharing 24

    5.5 Stack Layout 25

    5.6 Context Save/restore context 25

    5.7 Code Snippet 27

    5.8 BPU program Flow 27

    5.9 Sequence Flow Diagram 31

    6.1 Test Platform 33

    6.2 Model Sim Screen Shot 35

    6.3 Memory usage 37

    6.4 Generated Waveform 38

    v

  • List of Tables

    Table Name Page Number 1.1 Complexity & Compression Table 1

    4.1 Instruction Set 18

    6.1 Layer I Test Results 36

    6.2 Layer II Test Results 36

    6.3 BPU Memory Usage 37

    6.4 BPU cycles consumption of each layer per frame 37

    vi

  • Chapter-1 Introduction

    1.1 Introduction The digital audio has essentially replaced the analog audio, because digital audio has better

    preservation, cheaper distribution and various audio processing techniques in digital

    representation. The most common format for representation of digital audio is the Pulse Code

    Modulation [1]. PCM samples the audio signals at a fixed rate with fixed number of bits for

    the sampled value. The audio CD quality which means PCM samples sampled at 44.1 KHz

    for stereo signals (2 channels) with 16 bits r 4 minutes with audio CD

    quality requires over 40MB ((4*60*)*(2)* channels*sample rate*bits to

    represent) for storing which is a huge. The

    1.3 Mbps which is also huge. Therefore to

    transmit over internet with small BR audio

    1.2 MPEG A working group within the ISO referred

    developed a standard that contained several

    Among these standards ISO/IEC 11172 [2]

    the year 1993. This standard contains 4 pa

    Audio (11172-3) and Compliance Testing

    MPEG2 (ISO/IEC 13818), MPEG4 (ISO/IE

    The MPEG1 is usually preferred when only

    on compression and complexity as shown

    complex of all three layers [3]. This layer

    Complexity

    . To play an audio fo

    (44.1 k)*(16)) (time* Bitrate (BR) for sending the CD quality audio is

    store the digital audio with minimum space and to

    compression technology is most vital.

    to as Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG),

    techniques for both audio and video compression.

    , usually called as MPEG1, was first developed in

    rts namely Systems (11172-1), Video (11172-2),

    (11172-4)....

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