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  • Edited byFriedrich-Wilhelm Bach, Andreas Laarmann,and Thomas Wenz

    Translated from German byC. Benjamin Nakhosteen

    Modern Surface Technology

    InnodataFile Attachment3527608648.jpg

  • Edited byFr.-W. Bach, A. Laarmann,T. Wenz

    Modern SurfaceTechnology

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  • Edited byFriedrich-Wilhelm Bach, Andreas Laarmann,and Thomas Wenz

    Translated from German byC. Benjamin Nakhosteen

    Modern Surface Technology

  • The Editors

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Friedrich-Wilhelm BachDirectorUniversity of HannoverInstitute for Materials ScienceSchnebecker Allee 230823 GarbsenGermany

    Dr. Andreas Laarmannformerly:University of HannoverInstitute for Materials ScienceSchnebecker Allee 230823 GarbsenGermany

    Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Wenzformerly:University of HannoverInstitute for Materials ScienceSchnebecker Allee 230823 GarbsenGermany

    Translated from German byC. Benjamin NakhosteenOriginal title:Moderne Beschichtungsverfahren

    2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,Weinheim, GermanyAll rights reserved

    Cover Picture CreditsHVOF coating of shaftInstitute for Materials Science, University of Hannover,Germany

    Top rightCooling element with Cu layer produced by cold gassprayingOBZ Dresel & Grasme GmbH, Bad Krozingen, Germany

    Centre leftSol-gel antireflection coating on glassFraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE),Freiburg, Germany

    Centre rightEnhalpy probe diagnostics of the three cathode gunTriplex IIInstitute for Materials Science, University of Hannover,Germany

    Bottom leftPN-PVD coating processInstitute for Materials Science, University of Hannover,Germany

    Bottom rightFly cutters with build-up brazed wear protection coat-ing (Brazecoat)Innobraze GmbH, Esslingen, Germany

    Library of Congress Card No.: applied for

    British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the British Library.

    Bibliographic information published byDie Deutsche BibliothekDie Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in theDeutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailedbibliographic data is available in the Internet at

    2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,Weinheim, Germany

    All rights reserved (including those of translation intoother languages). No part of this book may be repro-duced in any form by photoprinting, microfilm, orany other means nor transmitted or translated intoa machine language without written permission fromthe publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc.used in this book, even when not specifically markedas such, are not to be considered unprotected by law.

    Printed in the Federal Republic of GermanyPrinted on acid-free paper

    Composition K+V Fotosatz GmbH, BeerfeldenPrinting betz-druck GmbH, DarmstadtBookbinding Litges & Dopf Buchbinderei GmbH,Heppenheim

    ISBN-13: 978-3-527-31532-1ISBN-10: 3-527-31532-2

    All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefullyproduced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisherdo not warrant the information contained in thesebooks, including this book, to be free of errors. Readersare advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illu-strations, procedural details or other items may inad-vertently be inaccurate.

  • Technological developments in aerospace and other high-technology fields giverise to constantly increasing demands on part surfaces. Generally, surfaces that,e.g., withstand tribological loads, or show special properties in thermal andelectrical conductivity or optical behaviour, require utilisation of coating pro-cesses.

    This book presents industrially implemented coating processes in the fieldsof build-up welding and brazing, plasma, arc, and flame spraying, sol-gel tech-nology as well as the thin-film technologies, chemical vapour deposition andphysical vapour deposition. Particular emphasis is placed on the combination ofprocess and materials technology in terms of producing coatings that meet allnecessary requirements.

    Alongside industrially relevant coating processes, newly developed technolo-gies on the verge of industrial implementation are presented. Examples are pro-cesses for diamond synthesis, cold gas spraying or the processing of nano-sizedparticles.

    The aim of this book is to enable engineers and technicians working in devel-opment, design, and manufacturing to be able to estimate the potential of pro-tective surface coatings and the associated processes in their fields of activity.The intention is that coating technologies serve as an integral part of develop-ment, design, and manufacturing.

    The EditorsMay 2006

    V

    Preface

  • Preface V

    List of Contributors XVII

    1 Selecting Surface-treatment Technologies 1W. Tillmann, E. Vogli

    1.1 Introduction 11.2 Requirements on Part Surfaces 11.3 Selecting Coating and Surface Technologies 41.4 Processes for Surface Modification and Coating 51.5 Economic Assessment of Surface-treatment Technologies 91.6 Summary and Conclusions 9

    References 10

    2 Stainless Austenitic Steel Surface Hardening for Increased Wear Resistance 11M. Wgner

    2.1 Introduction 112.2 Fundamentals 112.2.1 Heat Treatment 112.2.1.1 Surface-hardening Processes 122.2.2 Stainless Steels 132.2.2.1 Classification of Stainless Steels 142.2.2.2 Stainless Austenitic Steels 152.3 Technologies for Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless

    Steels 192.3.1 Kolsterising 192.3.1.1 Influence on Microstructure 202.3.1.2 Influence on Chemical Composition 212.3.1.3 Influence on Mechanical Properties 212.3.1.4 Wear Resistance 212.3.1.5 Influence on Corrosion Resistance 23

    VII

    Contents

  • 2.3.2 Kolsterising plus PVD Coating 242.3.2.1 Coating Adhesion 252.3.2.2 Wear Resistance 262.3.2.3 Fatigue Strength 262.4 Applications 282.4.1 Application Limitations 282.5 Outlook 29

    References 29

    3 Fundamentals of Thin-film Technology 31M. Nicolaus, M. Schpers

    3.1 Introduction 313.2 Classification of Thin-film Coating Processes 313.3 General Aspects of Gas-phase Coating Processes 323.3.1 PVD Physical Vapour Deposition 323.3.1.1 Evaporation 323.3.1.2 Sputtering 333.3.1.3 Ion Plating 353.3.2 CVD Chemical Vapour Deposition 353.4 Plasma Properties 363.4.1 Low-pressure Plasma 373.5 Coating Configuration 383.5.1 Coating Structure 383.6 Electrodeposition and Electroless Plating Processes 393.6.1 Introduction 393.6.2 Fundamental Terms 403.6.2.1 Electrolyte 403.6.2.2 Electrodes, Electrode Reactions, Electrode Potential 403.6.2.3 Electrolysis and Faradays Laws 423.6.2.4 Overpotential 443.6.3 Electroless Plating 443.6.4 Electrodeposition of Metal 453.6.5 Electrodeposition of Metal from Non-aqueous Solvents 473.6.6 Summary and Outlook 49

    References 50

    4 Innovations in PVD Technologyfor High-performance Applications 51K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, P. Immich

    4.1 Introduction 514.2 Market Situation 524.3 Application Examples 534.3.1 Tool Coatings for Cutting 544.3.2 Tool Coatings for Forming 554.3.3 Coatings for Plastic Parts 57

    ContentsVIII

  • 4.3.4 Coatings for Machine Elements 584.3.5 Part Coating for High-temperature Applications 604.4 Summary 61

    References 62

    5 Development and Status Quoof Thermal CVD Hard-material Coating 65A. Szabo

    5.1 Introduction 655.2 Early CVD Hard-material Coating 665.3 Fundamentals of Deposition Processes 665.3.1 Chemical Mechanism 665.3.2 Interdisciplinary Fundamentals 675.3.3 CVD System and Reaction-chamber Techniques 675.4 Combination Coatings 705.5 Material and Coating Properties 735.5.1 Physical Properties of Coating Materials 745.5.2 Comparison of Coating Combinations 745.5.2.1 Classic TiC-TiN 745.5.2.2 Balanced TiN-TiC 745.5.3 Effects of Thermal Expansion 755.5.4 Effects of Hardness 775.6 Performance of Hard-material Coatings Applications 775.6.1 Wear Resistance 795.6.2 Heat Treatment and Dimensional Accuracy 795.7 CVD Coating at Lower Temperatures 805.7.1 Moderate-temperature CVD, MTCVD 805.7.2 Plasma-activated CVD, PACVD 825.8 Summary and Conclusions 82

    References 83

    6 Hot-filament CVD Diamond Thin Films 87O. Lemmer, R. Cremer, D. Breidt, M. Frank, J. Mller

    6.1 Introduction 876.2 Differences of Diamond Tools 886.3 Substrate Pre-treatment 886.4 Production of CVD Diamond 896.5 Hot-filament Process 906.6 Controlling CVD Diamond Properties 926.7 Industrial Deposition of CVD Diamond 936.8 Post-treatment of CVD Diamond 936.9 Applications for Diamond-coated Tools 946.10 Summary and Conclusions 99

    References 100

    Contents IX

  • 7 An Introduction to Electrodepositionand Electroless Plating Processes 101W. Olberding

    7.1 Introduction 1017.2 Fundamentals of Electrodeposition

    (Considering Nickel Deposition as Example) 1017.2.1 Structure of Electroplated Nickel Coatings 1047.2.2 Deposition Mechanism 1057.2.3 Current-density Distribution 1067.2.4 Electroless Plating of Nickel 1077.3 Overview of System Technologies 1097.3.1 Barrel Plating 1097.3.2 Rack Plating 1117.3.3 Continuous Plating 1127.3.4 Brush Plating 1147.3.5 Tank Plating 1147.4 Overview of Individual Process Steps in Electroplating 1147.4.1 Degreasing 1147.4.2 Activating or Pickling 1157.4.3 Carryover 1157.4.4 Coating Passivating Materials such as Stainless Steel

    and Aluminium 1167.4.5 Summary of Pre-treatment 1167.5 Microstructuring and Electroforming 1167.6 Summary 117

    References 118

    8 Fundamentals of Thermal Spraying, Flame a

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