modal auxiliaries

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  • 1. Modal Auxiliaries

2. Auxiliary + the simple form of the verb Can= I can speak English Could= He couldnt come to class May= It may rain tomorrow Might= It might rain tomorrow Should= Mary should study harder Had better= I had better study tonight Must= Joe must see a doctor today Will=I will be in class tomorrow Would= Would you please close the door? 3. EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD Can expresses ability in the present orfuture- Bob can play the piano- You can buy a screwdriver at a hardwarestoreThe negative form of can may be written :Cant, cannot or can not The past form of can is could- Our son could talk when he was twoyears oldThe negative of could: couldnt or could 4. EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHTEXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN May and Might express possibility in thepresent or future. They have the samemeaning.- It may rain tomorrow- It might rain tomorrowThe negative: may not or might not Maybe (spelled as one word) is an adverbmeaning perhaps- Maybe it will rain tomorrow- Maybe John is sick- John may be sick (spelled as two words)is a verb form may + main verb be 5. ASKING FOR PERMISSION: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I People use may I, could I, and can Ito ask polite questions. Thequestions ask for someonespermission.- may I please borrow your pen?- Could I ask you something?- Can I come to your house tonight? Possible answers: Yes, Yes ofcourse, Yes certainly, Of course,certainly.Informal: Sure, Okay, Uh huh 6. ASKING FOR ASSISTANCE: WOULD YOU,COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOU People use would you, could you, willyou, and can you to ask politequestion. The questions ask forsomeones help or cooperation.- Would you please open the door?- Could you help me please?- Will you turn the music down? Itstoo loud- Can you buy something for dinner? 7. POSSIBLE ANSWERS:Yes, of courseYes. CertainlyOf CourseCertainlyId be happy toId be glad toOf course Id be happy to 8. EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD, OUGHTTO, HAD BETTER Should, ought to, and had betterhave basically the same meaning.They mean this is a good idea, orthis is a good advice. My clothes are dirty I (should/ought to/hadbetter) wash themThe negative of should is should not(shouldnt)Had better (contraction of had= d)-Youd better study tonight. 9. EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVEGOT TO, MUST Have to, have got to, and must havebasically the same meaning. They expressthe idea that something is necessary.- I have to/have got to/must study tonight Have to is used much more frequently thanmust in everyday speech and writing. The past form of have to/have got to/must ishad to (meaning necessity). 10. Expressing Lack of Necessity: do nothave toExpressing Prohibition: Must not Dont/doesnt have to expresses theidea that something is notnecessary.- I finished all of my homework thisafternoon. I dont have to studytonight.- Tomorrow is a holiday, Marydoesnt have to go to the class. Must not expresses prohibition (DO

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