Midterm review french iv

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Le Franais IVMidterm Review

BOTTOM LINE: The present tense indicates that the action is occurring right now!Present Tense translates 3 waysIn English, we have 3 different present tenses. In French there is only one. Translations include:je porte I wear, I do wear, I am wearingtu travailles you work, you do work, you are workingil parle he speaks, he does speak, he is speaking

Usage of the Present Tense

Current actionsHabitual actions still in effect.In si clauses with the future

With depuis and il y aque.Je lis un livre.Il regarde les nouvelles tous les jours.Si elle a le temps, elle iraiau cinema ce soir.Jtudie le franais depuis cinq ans.

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs end in -er, -ir, -re-ERje e nous onstu es vous ezil e ils entelle e elles ent-REje s nous onstu s vous ezil _ ils entelle _ elles ent-IRje is nous issonstu is vous issezil it ils issentelle it elles issent

Les Verbes RflechisReflexive Verbs express actions that are returned to the subject. The subject is also the object of the action.A reflexive pronoun is used to express reflexivity. The pronoun varies for each subject.menoustevousseseIn the infinitive form, the reflexive verb uses thepronoun se (s before a vowel.) Examples se laver, se brosser,sassesoir, shabiller, se raser, se maquiller

Je me brosse les dents.

Conduire to driveJe conduisNous conduisonsTu conduisVous conduisiezIl/elle/on conduitIls/elle conduisentPast participle conduit

Suivre to followJe suisNous suivonsTu suisVous suivezIl/elle/on suitIls/elle suiventPast participle - suivi

Mener to leadJe mneNous menonsTu mnesVous menezIl/elle/on mneIls/elle mnentPast participle - men

Mettre to put, to placeJe metsNous mettonsTu metsVous mettezIl/elle/on metIls/elle mettentPast participle - mis

ParatreJe paraisNous paraissonsTu paraisVous paraissezIl/elle/on paratIls/elle paraissentPast participle - paru

Irregular Verbs

Le Pass ComposUse To express certain actions in the pastForm Helping VerbAvoir All regular: -ER, -IR, -REMost irregular: avoir, tre, faire, prendre, etc.treVandertramp monter, rester, sortir, descendre, retourner, venir, arriver, natre, devenir, entrer, revenir, tomber, rentrer, aller, mourir, partirReflexive all verbs with a se in the infinitive form.Past ParticipleRegular Verbs -ER -IR i-RE uIrregular verbs see chart (next slide)Vandertramp verbs see chart (third slide)Reflexive verbs follow the regular rules

Common Irregular Verbs - Avoir

InfinitivePast ParticipleAvoirEutre tFaireFaitPrendrePrisDireDuLireLucritcritDormirDormiSavoirSuConnatreConnais

Vandertramp Verbs - treInfinitivePast ParticipleMonterMontResterRestSortirSortiDescendreDescenduRetournerRetournVenirVenu*ArriverArrivNatreN*DevenirDevenu*EntrerEntrRevenirRevenu*TomberTombRentrerRentrAllerAllMourirMort*PartirParti

Helpful Tips- Remember the acronym MRS. DR. VANDERTRAMP- Note that these verbs mostly deal with comings and goings- Most of these verbs follow the same rules to form the past participle as regular verbs- Chunk irregular past participles into groups- Verbs based on venir venu, devenu, revenu- Mourir and natre to die/to be born

In UseConjugate the helping verb for the subjectAvoir aiavonsasavezaonttre suissommesestesestsontForm the past participle (see previous slides)For verbs that take tre, show agreementAdd an e to the past participle for feminine subjects.Add an s to the past participle for plural subjects.

AvoirRegularIrregularParler Jai parl au tlphone hier.Prendre Jai pris le train.Choisir Elle a choisi la chemise verte.Dormir Paul a dormi pendant le film.Vendre Nous avons vendu notre voiture.Vous avez fait la cuisine.

treVandertrampReflexiveElle est tombeNous nous sommes habillsJe suis nTu tes bross les dents.Vous tes allsElles se sont reveilles

LImparfaitUse To express certain actions in the past.FormFind the stemRemove the ons ending from the nous form of a verbOne irregular stem tre = t-Add the ending that matches the subject-ais-ions-ais-iez-ait-aientExamplesQuand javais cinq ans, jtais trs timide.Quand elle tait petite, elle passait chaque t en France.

Le Pass Compos vs. LImparfaitPass ComposActions that began and ended in the past.Actions that took place at a specific time.ImparfaitHabitual or continuous actions in the past.Physical or emotional states in the past (setting a scene).Actions with no specific beginning or ending.TimePass ComposPresent

Imparfait

Summary Point: The imparfait indicates an action of indeterminate duration. The pass compose indicates a specific timeframe during which an action took place. An imperfect action may or may not be over. An action in pass compos is always a completed action.Quand Marie tait jeune elle est alle France.

Le FuturProche Aller + infinitiveConjugate aller for subjectFuture action remains in the infinitiveEx. Je vais regarder la tl ce soir.Simple The future tenseFind the stem-ER and IR verbs: infinitive-RE verbs: drop the eAdd the ending that matches the subject-ai-ons-ai-ez-ai-ontExampleJe voyagerai en France lanne prochaine.

aller je vais nous allons tu vas vous allez il/elle va ils/elles vonts

Le Futur AntrieurFormConjugate helping verb in the futur simplepast future action takes the past participle.Use To express actions that will be completed before another future actionExamplesJaurai fini mes tudes quand je voyagerai en France.Marie aura parl Phillippe demain.

Le SubjonctifUse to express doubtFormStemIls form in the present tenseDrop the entEndings-e-ions-es-iez-e-entIrregular Verbs

je/finir(ils) finissentfiniss-je finisseje -e

Indicative: Gives the facts. Exists in all the basic tenses: Past - what happenedPresent - what happens, what is happening Future - what will happenSubjunctive: Expresses doubt or uncertainty. Exists in the past and present: A wish or desire of someone elseCertain impersonal expression.Subjunctive vs. IndicativeJe choisissais./jai choisi.Je choisis.Je vais choisir/Je choisiraiJe veux quelle choisisse.Il est important que tu choisisses.You can avoid using the subjunctive by using a double verb construction instead:Ex. Il faut que tu finisses tes devoirs. Il faut finir tes devoirs.

Plus du SubjonctifWith Conjunctions condition avantafin pourvuau cas attendrebien de craintede faon de manirede peur de sorteen attendant tchermalgr pour autantpour jusqu cesoit moinsWith the Imperative

Le Pass du SubjonctifFormConjugate the helping verb in the subjunctive

avoir treaie ayonssois soyonsaies ayezsois soyezait aientsoit soient

Form past participle (same as pass compose)

UseTriggered by the same expressions of wishes/desires of someone else.Used when the action in the subordinate clause is a past action.Ex. Je tais triste que tu naies pas appel.Nous avons pass un bon weekend, bien quil nait pas fait beau.Il fallait que tu aies compris le pass du subjonctif.

Note.The verb in the main clause does not have to be in the past in order for the verb in the subordinate clause to take the past subjunctive.

Le Pass SimpleAbout The pass simple is a literary text. It is used in place of the pass compos in writing.-ER Verbs-ai-mes-as-tes-a-rent

-IR Verbs-is-mes-is-tes-it-irent

-RE Verbs-us-mes-us-tes-ut-urent

It is formed by removing the infinitive ending and adding the ending that matches the subject.Many irregular verbs will follow these rules as well:Irregular Verbs-ER Rulealler-IR Ruledire, faire, mettre, voir, prendre, natre, crire-RE Ruledevoir, tre, avoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir, vivre, mourir

LImpratifUseCommands/Directions/AdviceTuVousSuggestions - NousFormDrop the subjectConjugate the verbDrop the s in the tu form with ER verbs and allerEx. Mange tes legumes!With Object PronounsMe and te change to the stress pronouns moi and toiNew syntaxObject pronouns will follow the verb with a hyphenDirect object pronouns le, la, les will precede indirect object pronouns moi, toi and nous.Ex. Tu me lances le ballon Lance-le-moi.

ATTENTION! Some verbs in the imperative require the use of the subjunctive!

Le Participe PrsentFormStem nous form in the present tense, drop ons.Add the ending ant.Irregular verbstre tantavoir ayantsavoir sachantUseTranslated as the ing suffix in English. Most often used with en to express an action being performed at the time another action took place. Ex. En faisant mes devoirs, jai ru des bonnes notes.

The present participle can also be used alone to modify nouns:Ex. Ayant faim, il a mange tout le gteau

Quantity Expressions

plus detrop derien debeaucoup deautant deassez demoins dequelque chose deplusieursquelquespeu deNoteQuantities followed by the preposition de will be followed by nouns. The de will never vary. Ex. Jai beaucoup de livres.Plusieurs and quelques will never be followed by a preposition. Ex. Elle a plusieurs histoires.Quelque chose de and rien de will be followed by adjectives in the ms. Ex. Nous avons entendu quelque chose de nouveau.

Le PlurielGeneral RulesAdd sEx. les chiens, les voitures, les lvesNouns ending in uAdd xEx. les chteaux, les jeuxNouns ending in alChange to auxEx. lanimal les animauxNouns ending in s, -x, or z Will not changeEx. le choix, le fils, le nezIrregularities

loeil les yeux

monsieur messieurs

le ciel les cieuxmadame mesdames

le pneu les pneusmademoiselle - mesdemoiselles