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  • Microprocessor Design

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071459510

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  • Microprocessor DesignA Practical Guide from Design Planning

    to Manufacturing

    Grant McFarland

    McGraw-HillNew York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid

    Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071459510

  • Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Publishing Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufacturedin the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976,no part of this publication may be reproduced or ditributed in any form or by any means, or stored ina database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    0-07-149212-7

    The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-145951-0.

    All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol afterevery occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the bene-fit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designa-tions appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

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    TERMS OF USE

    This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (McGraw-Hill) and its licensorsreserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permittedunder the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may notdecompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon,transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it withoutMcGraw-Hills prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use;any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if youfail to comply with these terms.

    THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUAR-ANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OFOR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMA-TION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE,AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUTNOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the func-tions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted orerror free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccu-racy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom.McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work.Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental,special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use thework, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of lia-bility shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tortor otherwise.

    DOI: 10.1036/0071459510

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071459510

  • We hope you enjoy thisMcGraw-Hill eBook! If

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071459510

  • To Elaine

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  • vii

    Brief Contents

    Chapter 1. The Evolution of the Microprocessor 1

    Chapter 2. Computer Components 37

    Chapter 3. Design Planning 71

    Chapter 4. Computer Architecture 95

    Chapter 5. Microarchitecture 127

    Chapter 6. Logic Design 171

    Chapter 7. Circuit Design 199

    Chapter 8. Layout 239

    Chapter 9. Semiconductor Manufacturing 263

    Chapter 10. Microprocessor Packaging 303

    Chapter 11. Silicon Debug and Test 331

    Glossary 357

    Index 385

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  • ix

    Contents

    Preface xvAcknowledgments xix

    Chapter 1. The Evolution of the Microprocessor 1

    Overview 1Objectives 1Introduction 1The Transistor 3The Integrated Circuit 10The Microprocessor 14Moores Law 17

    Transistor scaling 19Interconnect scaling 24Microprocessor scaling 27The future of Moores law 30

    Conclusion 33Key Concepts and Terms 34Review Questions 34Bibliography 34

    Chapter 2. Computer Components 37

    Overview 37Objectives 37Introduction 37Bus Standards 38Chipsets 41Processor Bus 44Main Memory 47Video Adapters (Graphics Cards) 51Storage Devices 53

    For more information about this title, click here

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071459510

  • Expansion Cards 55Peripheral Bus 57Motherboards 58Basic Input Output System 62Memory Hierarchy 63Conclusion 69Key Concepts and Terms 69Review Questions 69Bibliography 70

    Chapter 3. Design Planning 71

    Overview 71Objectives 71Introduction 71Processor Roadmaps 74Design Types and Design Time 79Product Cost 85Conclusion 91Key Concepts and Terms 92Review Questions 92Bibliography 93

    Chapter 4. Computer Architecture 95

    Overview 95Objectives 95Introduction 95Instructions 98

    Computation instructions 99Data transfer instructions 103Control flow instructions 111

    Instruction Encoding 115CISC versus RISC 118RISC versus EPIC 120Recent x86 extensions 122

    Conclusion 124Key Concepts and Terms 125Review Questions 125Bibliography 126

    Chapter 5. Microarchitecture 127

    Overview 127Objectives 127Introduction 128Pipelining 128Designing for Performance 134Measuring Performance 137Microarchitectural Concepts 142

    x Contents

  • Cache memory 143Cache coherency 147Branch prediction 149Register renaming 152Microinstructions and microcode 154Reorder, retire, and replay 157

    Life of an Instruction 160Instruction prefetch 161L2 cache read 162Instruction decode 162Branch prediction 162Trace cache write 163Microbranch prediction 163Uop fetch and drive 163Allocation 164Register rename 165Load instruction queue 165Schedule and dispatch 165Register file read 166Execute and calculate flags 166Retirement and drive 167

    Conclusion 168Key Concepts and Terms 168Review Questions 168Bibliography 169

    Chapter 6. Logic Design 171

    Overview 171Objectives 171Introduction 171Hardware Description Language 173

    Design automation 175Pre-silicon validation 178

    Logic Minimization 182Combinational logic 182Sequential logic 191

    Conclusion 196Key Concepts and Terms 197Review Questions 197Bibliography 197

    Chapter 7. Circuit Design 199

    Overview 199Objectives 199Introduction 199MOSFET Behavior 200CMOS Logic Gates 207

    Transistor sizing 212

    Contents xi

  • Sequentials 216Circuit Checks 220

    Timing 221Noise 226Power 231

    Conclusion 235Key Concepts and Terms 236Review Questions 236Bibliography 237

    Chapter 8. Layout 239

    Overview 239Objectives 239Introduction 239Creating Layout 240Layout Density 245Layout Quality 253Conclusion 259Key Concepts and Terms 260Review Questions 260Bibliography 261

    Chapter 9. Semiconductor Manufacturing 263

    Overview 263Objectives 263Introduction 263Wafer Fabrication 265Layering 268

    Doping 268Deposition 272Thermal oxidation 276Planarization 278

    Photolithography 279Masks 280Wavelength and lithography 282

    Etch 286Example CMOS Process Flow 289Conclusion 300Key Concepts and Terms 301Review Questions 301Bibliography 302

    Chapter 10. Microprocessor Packaging 303

    Overview 303Objectives 303Introduction 303

    xii Contents

  • Package Hierarchy 304Package Design Choices 308

    Number and configuration of leads 309Lead types 311Substrate type 313Die attach 318Decoupling capacitors 319Thermal resistance 320Multichip modules 323

    Example Assembly Flow 325Conclusion 328Key Concepts and Terms 329Review Questions 329Bibliography 330

    Chapter 11. Silicon Debug and Test 331

    Overview 331Objectives 331Introduction 331Design for Test Circuits 333Post-Silicon Validation 338

    Validation platforms and tests 339A bugs life 341

    Silicon Debug 344Silicon Test 350Conclusion 353Key Concepts and Terms 354Review Questions 355Bibliography 355

    Glossary 357Index 385

    Contents xiii

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  • Preface

    Reading This Book

    Microprocessor design isnt hard, but sometimes it seems that way. Asprocessors have grown in complexity and processor design teams havegrown in size, individual design engineers have become more special-ized, focusing on only one part of the design process. Each step in thedesign flow has its own jargon; today it is not at all hard to be workingon a processor design team and still not have a clear understanding ofaspects of design that dont involve you personally. Likewise, most text-books focus on one particular aspect of processor design, often leavingout information about what steps came before or what will happen after-ward. The intent of this book is to provide an overall picture of themicroprocessor design flow, from the initial planning of a processorthrough all the steps required to ship to customers.

    Covering the entire design flow in a single book

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