Methods in diagnosing pneumonia for the improvement of radiographs

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Methods in diagnosing pneumonia for the improvement of radiographs. Daisy Ochoa University of California, Merced. Background . Fig 1. Consolidation: Inflammation of the lung tissue [4]. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Advancing in x-ray imaging to diagnose pneumonia

Daisy OchoaUniversity of California, MercedMethods in diagnosing pneumonia for the improvement of radiographsBackground Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a respiratory infection of the lungs in which the air sacks become swollen due to foreign micro-organisms: bacteria and viruses [1].One of the leading causes of death with an estimation of about 12 cases per 1000 adults each year [3].600 people under the age of 65 were admitted to the hospital for CAP [5]Chest x-rays, blood and phlegm samples are used in the diagnosis

Fig 1. Consolidation:Inflammation of the lung tissue [4].MethodsProcess of Identifying the microorganism: Blood and phlegm samples are collected for lab tests. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the rate of red blood cells sedimentation is also done in the lab [3].

ELISA test

Results from the ELISA testBlood samples: 3 patients out of the 10 test positive for pneumococcal pneumonia. The blood cultures drops that were used in the ELISA did show pneumococcal capsular antigens. Other samples, such as sputum, showed that the infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus in patients with flu-like symptoms.C-reactive Protein High expression of CPR shown by the ELISA test. A correlating factor that is used as a diagnosing tool for pneumonia. CRP is a protein released as a inflammation signaling response from the liver. Consolidation of the lungs results in high expression of CRP [3].

Fig 3. CRP structure

Fig 4. Patchy consolidation CXR [4]More Methods . . .Radiographs from chest x-ray (CXR) or a computed tomography scan (CT scan) are exposed to patients with suspected pneumonia. Upright position with protective radiation shielding Radiographs: short x-ray pulse is exposed to the patient in which the bones absorb due to the calcium's high absorbency [2]. Bone and air are seen clearly on radiographs unlike tissue due to the density differences of each tissue. Radiographs sometimes are unclear and difficult to read due to the interference of consolidation. Future research

Silicon based detectors (lower radiation exposure) vs silver based detectors Researchers Hilt, B., Fessler, P., & Prevot, G conducted single x-ray exposures to phantom body parts using regular silver based radiation and silicon based detector of x-rays but produce a low quality image. A future goal: use lower exposure of radiation but to produce high quality images.Future holds improvement to the lab apparatus for researchers to increasing the spatial resolution, remove unwanted regions, and keep a good contrast within the images. In summaryMultiple methods used in the diagnosis of pneumoniaBlood samplesPhlegm samplesCRP expressionELISA testChest x-rays and CT scans

Future research for radiograph quality

ReferencesHilt, B., Fessler, P., & Prevot, G. (2000). New quantum detection system for very low dose x-ray radiology. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, A(421), 38-44.

Hayden, G. E., & Wrenn, K. W. (2009). Chest radiograph vs. computed tomography scan in the evaluation for pneumonia. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36(3), 266-270. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.11.042

Castro-Guardiola, A., Armengou-Arxe et al. (2000). Differential diagnosis between community-acquired pneumonia and non- pneumonia diseases of the chest in the emergency ward. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 11, 334-339.

Das, D., & Howlett, D. C. (2009). Chest x-ray manifestations of pneumonia. 27(10), 453-455.

Tang, C. M., & Macfarlane, J. T. (1993). Early management of younger adults dying of community acquired pneumonia. Respiratory Medicine, 87, 289-294.

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