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Prof. Dr. Peggy Valcke (KU Leuven, ICRI - IBBT) Media Pluralism and Diversity & Countering Hate Speech in Europe Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom; DEMOS Institute; Open Society Foundations; UNESCO European University Institute, 27 March 2012


  • 1. Measuring Media Pluralism in Europe:Combining Legal, Economic and Socio-Demographic Indicators with Risk Assessment MethodsProf. Dr. Peggy Valcke (KU Leuven, ICRI - IBBT) Media Pluralism and Diversity &Countering Hate Speech in EuropeCentre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom; DEMOS Institute; Open Society Foundations; UNESCOEuropean University Institute, 27 March 2012Context mid-1990s: EU harmonisation directive onmedia ownership failed shows political sensitivities about issue But: media pluralism recurrent concern of EP various resolutions, Mikko report... EU three-step approach to media pluralism1. Commission Staff Working Document (Jan. 2007)2. Study (2008-2009)3. Communication (abandoned) Monitoring!21

2. Objective of the Study Develop practicable monitoring toolto detect threats to pluralismwith differentiated sets of indicatorscovering pertinent legal, economic and socio-cultural considerations 3Purpose of Such Tool Enhance transparency about media pluralismin Member States Provide evidentiary basis for decision-makers NO harmonisation of policies, concepts,regulation...Diagnosis, no therapy 42 3. Presentation Study Team Object of the Study Media pluralism= broad term embracing a number of aspects, suchas diversity of ownership, variety in the sources ofinformation and in the range of contents availablein the different Member States. [] Ensuringmedia pluralism implies all measures that ensurecitizens access to a variety of informationsources, opinion, voices etc. in order to form theiropinion without the undue influence of onedominant opinion forming power.(> EC Staff Working Document 2007; CoE Recommendations 1999and 2007) 63 4. Object of the Study Council of Europe, Explanatory Memorandum toRecommendation No. R (99) 1 on measures topromote media pluralism...the notion of media pluralism should be understoodas diversity of media supply, reflected, for example, inthe existence of a plurality of independent andautonomous media (generally called structuralpluralism) as well as a diversity of media types andcontents (views and opinions) made available to thepublic. Therefore both the structural/quantitative andqualitative aspects are central to the notion of mediapluralism. 7Object of the Study Explanatory Memorandum to Recommendation No. R(99) 1 on measures to promote media pluralism[...] The concept of pluralism is comprised of two features.Political pluralism, which is about the need, in the interestsof democracy, for a wide range of political opinions andviewpoints to be represented in the media. Democracywould be threatened if any single voice within the media,with the power to propagate a single political viewpoint,were to become too dominant. Cultural pluralism, which isabout the need for a variety of cultures, as reflects thediversity within society, to find expression in the media. 8 4 5. Outcome: Media Pluralism Monitor9 Main Features (& impact on design)Neutral Monitoring Tool Compatible with different normative approaches, divergingregulatory cultures It does NOT: prescribe remedies dictate level of risk-appetite defend ideology 105 6. Main Features (& impact on design) Holistic / Comprehensive Covers various segments of media market (print,audiovisual, online public, private, community media...) For first time, brings together a host of previouslydisparate concerns to offer a multi-faceted approachto media pluralism (internal, external, political, cultural,geographic...) cf. CoEs broad notion of media pluralism11Main Features (& impact on design) Risk-based Does not measure actual level of media pluralism,nor best practices, but threats to pluralism Risks include lost opportunities (e.g. lowavailability of broadband networks in rural areas)12 6 7. Main Features (& impact on design)Concrete / Objective Relies on quantitative measurements to largestpossible extent Methods for calculation and border values aretransparent 13Main Features (& impact on design)EU-standardised Common set of indicators with identical bordervalues But: regard for national specificities through exante- and ex post profiling; infra 147 8. Main Features (& impact on design)Evolving Tool is flexible: possibility to include emerging / futurerisks at later stage, as well as new indicators SMART-test = method applied to select first tier from second tier indicators in current MPMSpecific: indicators have sufficiently precise meaning & direct link with media pluralismMeasurable: they can be expressed in quantitative or qualitative score Achievable/attainable: data can be obtained at reasonable cost Result-oriented: reliable border values can be defined over which there is broadconsensus (Time-bound: data can be collected frequently enough to inform the progress andinfluence the decisions)Second tier indicators may be included in MPM at a later stage (e.g. when relevance hasgrown, data or measurement methods have become available).15Main Features (& impact on design)Practical / User-friendly As simple as possible, but as sophisticated asnecessary Detailed User Guide Open for use by wide range of stakeholders Cost factor: try to recycle existing data168 9. 17Structure MPM 6 risk domains (> traditional descriptions of media pluralism) 6 Risk Domains geographicalpluralism in thebasic domain media cultural pluralism in the pluralism ofmedia media ownershipand control political pluralism in thepluralism ofmedia media types andgenres 18 9 10. Structure MPM Basic domain Free speech, independent supervision, media literacy Pluralism of media ownership/control High (ownership and audience) concentration in terrestrial TV /radio / newspapers / Cable/Sat/DSL-TV / magazines / internetcontent provision / book publishing; high concentration of cross-media ownership; vertical integration (bottlenecks indistribution); transparency of ownership structures Pluralism of media types Lack of/under-representation of/dominance of media types orgenres: financial parity, audience parity, distribution of publicinterest channels (must carry), publics access to certain content(e.g. events list, short news reporting) Lack of sufficient market resources to support range of media;lack of sufficient resources to support PSM 19Structure MPMo Cultural pluralism domain:Insufficient representation of European, national or world cultures, insufficient proportion of independent and in- house production in audiovisualAbsence or insufficient representation of various cultural and social groups in the media (content & HR)Insufficient system of minority and community mediao Political pluralism domain:Political bias in media (during election campaigns); Politicisation of media ownership / control; Editorial independence; (In)dependence of PSM and news services; Pluralism of distribution systems; Citizen activity in online media 20 10 11. Structure MPMoGeographical pluralism domain: High centralisation of national media systems; Insufficientsystem of local and regional media (including differenttypes of ownership, investment, access to networks andplatforms) Representation of local and regional communities(content & HR) Dominance of a limited number of information sources forlocal issues Insufficient access to media and distribution systems dueto geographic obstacles (PSM, broadband, newspaperdistribution)21 Structure MPM Risks are measured through 3 types of indicators(> ToR / holistic approach) LEGAL: assess existence and effective implementation of legal / regulatory safeguards against certain threats to media pluralism (including co/self-regulation) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC: assess social, geographic, demographic factors having impact on / posing threats to media pluralism e.g. employment, audience preferences, access of public to data aboutpolitical affiliation of media owners, availability of certain media content ECONOMIC: assess economic factors having impact on / posing threats to media pluralism e.g. ownership/control of media, industry structure, consolidation andconcentration trends, geographic distribution, revenue distribution,financing, state aid, audience and advertising shares 2211 12. Structure MPM Covering 3 risk areas (> traditional value chain) Supply Distribution Use Scored on basis of 3 border values (> risk-based approach) Red: high risk need for action Orange: medium risk attention point Green: low risk no need for action 23MPM: StatisticsArea / DomainDistribution Supply Use TotalCultural pluralism in the media 240244Basic domain10 111Geographical pluralism in the media 517325Pluralism of media types and genres 315321Pluralism of ownership and control820 28Political pluralism in the media332237Total 21 13411 166 Socio-Type / DomainEconomic Legaldemographic TotalCultural pluralism in the media 613 2544Basic domain1111Geographical pluralism in the media 6 7 1225Pluralism of media types and genres 127221Pluralism of ownership and control15 13 28Political pluralism in the media 16 2137Total 39 67 60 16624 12 13. Example of Score Sheet25Example of Score Sheet26 13 14. Example of Report Sheet RISK PROFILE PLURALISM OF OWNERSHIP & CONTROL: INDICATORS PER O1.1 O10.2 RISKO1.2 4O10.1O1.3O1 High ownership concentration in terrestrial 4 television O9.2 O2.1 O2 High ownership concentration in radio 3O9.1 3 O2.2O3 High ownership concentration in newspapers 2 O4 High ownership concentration in O8.3 O2.3 Cable/Sat/ADSL/TV 2 O5 High ownership concentration in magazines O8.2 O3.1 1 O6 High ownership concentration in internet 1 content provision O7 High ownership concentration in bookO8.1 0O3.2 publishing O8 High concentration of cross-media ownership O7.3 O3.3 O9 High vertical concentration O10 Intransparency in ownership structures O7.2 O4.1 HIGH RISKO7.1 O4.2 MODERATE RISK O6.3 O4.3 LOW RISK O6.2O5.1O6.1 O5.2SCORE O5.327Example of Report SheetRISK PROFILE PLURALISM OF OWNERSHIP & CONTROL: OVERALL HIGH RISK MODERATE RISK RIS