# means & medians chapter 5. parameter - ► fixed value about a population ► typical unknown

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• Slide 1
• Means & Medians Chapter 5
• Slide 2
• Parameter - Fixed value about a population Typical unknown
• Slide 3
• Statistic - Value calculated from a sample
• Slide 4
• Measures of Central Tendency Median - the middle of the data; 50 th percentile Observations must be in numerical order Is the middle single value if n is odd The average of the middle two values if n is even NOTE: n denotes the sample size
• Slide 5
• Measures of Central Tendency Mean - the arithmetic average Use to represent a population mean Use x to represent a sample mean Formula: is the capital Greek letter sigma it means to sum the values that follow parameter statistic
• Slide 6
• Measures of Central Tendency Mode the observation that occurs the most often Can be more than one mode If all values occur only once there is no mode Not used as often as mean & median
• Slide 7
• Suppose we are interested in the number of lollipops that are bought at a certain store. A sample of 5 customers buys the following number of lollipops. Find the median. 2 3 4 8 12 The numbers are in order & n is odd so find the middle observation. The median is 4 lollipops!
• Slide 8
• Suppose we have sample of 6 customers that buy the following number of lollipops. The median is 2 3 4 6 8 12 The numbers are in order & n is even so find the middle two observations. The median is 5 lollipops! Now, average these two values. 5
• Slide 9
• Suppose we have sample of 6 customers that buy the following number of lollipops. Find the mean. 2 3 4 6 8 12 To find the mean number of lollipops add the observations and divide by n.
• Slide 10
• Using the calculator...
• Slide 11
• What would happen to the median & mean if the 12 lollipops were 20? 2 3 4 6 8 20 The median is... 5 The mean is... 7.17 What happened?
• Slide 12
• What would happen to the median & mean if the 20 lollipops were 50? 2 3 4 6 8 50 The median is... 5 The mean is... 12.17 What happened?
• Slide 13
• Resistant - Statistics that are not affected by outliers Is the median resistant? Is the mean resistant? YES NO
• Slide 14
• Now find how each observation deviates from the mean. What is the sum of the deviations from the mean? Look at the following data set. Find the mean. 2223242525262930 0 Will this sum always equal zero? YES This is the deviation from the mean.
• Slide 15
• Look at the following data set. Find the mean & median. Mean = Median = 21232324252526262627 27272728303030313232 27 Create a histogram with the data. (use x-scale of 2) Then find the mean and median. 27 Look at the placement of the mean and median in this symmetrical distribution.
• Slide 16
• Look at the following data set. Find the mean & median. Mean = Median = 222928222425282125 2324232636386223 25 Create a histogram with the data. (use x-scale of 8) Then find the mean and median. 28.176 Look at the placement of the mean and median in this right skewed distribution.
• Slide 17
• Look at the following data set. Find the mean & median. Mean = Median = 214654475360555560 5658585858626364 58 Create a histogram with the data. Then find the mean and median. 54.588 Look at the placement of the mean and median in this skewed left distribution.
• Slide 18
• Recap: In a symmetrical distribution, the mean and median are equal. In a skewed distribution, the mean is pulled in the direction of the skewness. In a symmetrical distribution, you should report the mean! In a skewed distribution, the median should be reported as the measure of center!
• Slide 19
• Trimmed mean: To calculate a trimmed mean: Multiply the % to trim by n Truncate that many observations from BOTH ends of the distribution (when listed in order) Calculate the mean with the shortened data set
• Slide 20
• Find a 10% trimmed mean with the following data. 12141920222425262635 10%(10) = 1 So remove one observation from each side!

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