mauryan empire and gupta dynasty
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DESCRIPTIONMauryan Empire And Gupta Dynasty. The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Mauryan and Gupta empires321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.
India Before the Mauryan Dynasty520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west IndiaIntroduces Persian ruling pattern327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in IndiaTroops mutiny, departs after 2 yearsPolitical power vacuum
Kingdom of MagadhaMost significant remaining kingdom after Alexanders departureCentral Ganges plainEconomic strengthAgricultureTrade in Ganges valley, Bay of BengalDominated surrounding regions in north-eastern India
Chandragupta MauryaTook advantage of power vacuum left by AlexanderOverthrew Magadha rulersFounder of Maurya Empire - creates 1st unified Indian empire
The Maurya Empire321 BCE 185 BCE
Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Founder of Mauryan Empire Unified northern India. Defeated the Persian general Seleucus. Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement. He feared assassination food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc. 301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.
Kautilya (or Chanakya) Chandraguptas advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra (advice manual). A guide for the king and his ministers: Supports royal power. The great evil in society is anarchy. Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
Chandraguptas GovernmentLike Persia & China, built a bureaucratic administrative system.Domestic policiesNetwork of spiesLegend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death
Ashoka (304 232 BCE)
Grandson of ChandraguptaRepresents high point of Mauryan Empire, r. 268-232 BCEExpanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for southPositive leadership integrated Indian societyEst. capital @ PataliputraBetter known as a governor than conqueror
Ashoka Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BCE. Dedicated his life to Buddhism. Built extensive roads. Conflict how to balance Kautilyas methods of keeping power and Buddhas demands to become a selfless person?
Ashokas law code Wrote law code on rocks or pillars (Stupas) Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan. Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic. 10 rock edicts. Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
Women Under an Asoka tree
Decline of the Mauryan EmpireEconomic crisis follows death of AshokaHigh costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenueFrequent devaluations of currency to pay salariesRegions begin to abandon Mauryan EmpireDisappears by 185 BCE
Regional Kingdom: BactriaNorthwestern IndiaRuled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexanders campaignsIntense cultural activity accompanies active trade
Turmoil & a Power Vacuum: 220 BCE 320 CETamilsThe Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms.
Regional Kingdom: KushNomads of Central AsiaRuled C. 1-300 CEMaintained silk road trade networkHigh point under the rule of Kashika, empire expands thruout So. Asia.
The Gupta DynastyBased in MagadhaFounded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CESlightly smaller than Mauryan EmpireHighly decentralized leadershipFoundations for studies in natural sciences and mathematics
Gupta Empire: 320 CE 647 CE
Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I r. 320 335 CE Great King of Kings Chandra Gupta II r. 375 - 415 CE Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world! Hindu revival. Huns invade 450 CE
Fa-Xian: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c. He was following the path of the Buddha. He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.
International Trade Routes during the Guptas
Extensive Trade: 4cspicesspicesgold & ivorygold & ivoryrice & wheathorsescotton goodscotton goodssilks
Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala. During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
MedicineLiteratureMathematicsAstronomyPrinted medicinal guides1000 diseases classifiedPlastic SurgeryC-sections performedInoculations500 healing plants identifiedDecimal SystemConcept of ZeroPI = 3.1416KalidasaSolar Calendar and eclipsesThe earth is round and rotatesGupta IndiaGupta Achievements
Gupta DeclineFrequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CEGupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault linesSmaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c.