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DESCRIPTIONMASS MOVEMENTS. What are landslides? Video clip1 Video clip 2 Video clip 3 Video clip 4 Video clip 5 Video clip 6 Video clip 7 Video clip 8 Preventing Landslides Preventing Landslides 2 Preventing Landslides 3. Types of Mass Movement. FALL. SLIDE. SLUMP. FLOW. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
MASSMOVEMENTSWhat are landslides?Video clip1Video clip 2Video clip 3Video clip 4Video clip 5Video clip 6Video clip 7Video clip 8Preventing LandslidesPreventing Landslides 2Preventing Landslides 3
Types of Mass MovementFALLSLIDESLUMPFLOW
Nevado del Ruiz Mudflow 1985
GravityShear stressslide componentShear strengthstick componentCauses of Mass Movements
Causes of Mass MovementsIn this example what has happened to the balance between shear stress and the shear strength ?Shear stress has Shear strength has Shear stressShear strength=Slope stabilityShear stressShear strength=Slope failureMass movements occur when the shear stress increases or the shear strength decreases.
Causes of Mass MovementsExplain how each of these either reduces shear strength or increases shear stress.Think of factors that could either reduce the shear strength or increase shear stress.
Shear Strength Shear StressIncrease in water content of slopeIncrease in slope angleRemoval of overlying materialShocks & vibrationsWeatheringLoading the slope with additional weightAlternating layers of varying rock types/lithologyUndercutting the slopeBurrowing animalsRemoval of vegetation
WaterMax angle = angle of reposeInternal cohesion
2. WaterPore water pressure = liquefaction
Causes of Mass Movements(Aberfan, Vaiont Dam & Nevado del Ruiz)(Mam Tor, Vaiont Dam & Holbeck Hall Hotel)(Mam Tor, & Avon Gorge)(Sarno)(Mt St Helens & Elm)(Nevados de Huascaran & Mt St Helens)(Vaiont Dam)
Shear Strength Shear StressIncrease in water content of slopeIncrease in slope angleRemoval of overlying materialShocks & vibrationsWeatheringLoading the slope with additional weightAlternating layers of varying rock types/lithologyUndercutting the slope Burrowing animalsRemoval of vegetation
Vaiont Dam, North Italy, 1963
Vaiont Dam, North Italy, 1963Syncline structure
Vaiont Dam, North Italy, 1963 limestones inter-bedded with sands and clays. bedding planes that parallel the syncline structure, dipping steeply into the valley from both sides. Some of the limestone beds had caverns, due to chemical weathering by groundwater During August & September, 1963, heavy rains drenched the area adding weight to the rocks above the dam & increasing pore water pressureThe landslide had moved along the clay layers that parallel the bedding planes in the northern wall of the valley Oct 9, 1963 at 10:41 P.M. the south wall of the valley failed and slid into the reservoir behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir had also increased fluid pressure in the pore spaces of the rock.
Aberfan, South Wales 1966
Nevados de Huascaran, Peru, 1970
Nevados de Huascaran, Peru, 1970 magnitude 7.7 earthquake shaking lasted for 45 seconds, large block fell from the 6 000m peak became a debris avalanche sliding across the snow covered glacier at velocities up to 335 km/hr. hit a small hill and was launched into the air as an airborne debris avalanche. blocks the size of large houses fell on real houses for another 4 km. recombined and continued as a debris flow, burying the town of Yungay
Mt St Helens, USA 1980 Magma moved high into the cone of Mount St. Helens and inflated the volcano's north side outward by at least 150 m. This dramatic deformation was called the "bulge. This increased the shear stress. Within minutes of a magnitude 5.1 earthquake at 8:32 a.m., a huge landslide completely removed the bulge, the summit, and inner core of Mount St. Helens, and triggered a series of massive explosions. As the landslide moved down the volcano at a velocity of nearly 300 km/hr, the explosions grew in size and speed and a low eruption cloud began to form above the summit area
Holbeck Hall Hotel, Scarborough, 1993
Holbeck Hall Hotel, Scarborough, 1993 Boulder clay Dry & cracked due to 4 years of drought Above average rainfall in spring & early summer of 1993 Saturated clay is unstable Increase in weight Increase in pore water pressure Dissolves cement Cracked clay increased its permeability allowing water in
Sarno, Italy, 1998Sarno
Figure 1a shows the site of the former Aberfan coal-waste tips (South Wales), one of which (tip No.7) suffered a major landslide and associated debris flow in 1966.Figure 1b is a geological section through tip No.7 and the underlying geology prior to thelandslide.
(a) On the geological section (Figure 1b), mark with a labelled arrow ( S) the location of the spring beneath tip No.7. Account for the presence of a spring at this location. (b) Draw a line on Figure 1b to show the probable surface of failure associated with the landslide. 
(c) (i) State two geological factors that may have been responsible for causing tip No.7 to fail. 
(ii) Give an explanation of the possible role played by one of the geological factors you have identified in (c) (i). 
(d) Explain how appropriate action could have reduced the risk of mass movement prior to the failure of tip No.7. 
(e) Explain one environmental problem (other than waste tipping) associated with the extraction of rock or minerals from a mine you have studied. 
Controlling Mass Movements
The toe is stabilised by gabions. The railway line is protected by hazard-resistant design structure.Toe stabilisation and hazard-resistant designStabilisation by retaining wall and anchoringThe toe is stabilised by retaining wall which reduces the shear stress. The upper slope has rock anchors and mesh curtains. Drains improve water movement and shotcrete is used to reduce infiltration into the hillside.Loading the toe and retaining wallsMaterial deposited at the slope foot (toe) reduces the shear stress. Retaining walls are used to stabilise the upper slope. In this case a steel-mesh curtain is used.This increases the shear strength of the materials by reducing the pore-water pressureRegrading the slope to produce more stable angles to reduce shear stressDrainageTerracing (benches) and drainage
1.Drainage2.Terracing (benches)and drainageThis increases the shear strength of the materials by reducing the pore-water pressureRe-grading the slope to produce more stable anglesMass Movement Stabilisation
Mass Movement Stabilisation3.Loading the toe and retaining wallsMaterial deposited at the slope foot (toe) reduces the shear stress. Retaining walls are used to stabilise the upper slope. In this case a steel-mesh curtain is used.
Mass Movement Stabilisation4.Stabilisation by retaining wall and anchoringThe toe is stabilised by retaining wall. The upper slope has rock anchors and mesh curtains. Drains improve water movement and shotcrete is used to reduce infiltration into the hillside.
Mass Movement Stabilisation5.Toe stabilisation and hazard-resistant designThe toe is stabilised by gabions. The railway line is protected by hazard-resistant design structure.
Limestone interbedded with mudstonesPortway, Avon GorgeWell jointed limestoneLoose rock causes rockfallFrost shattering weatheringSteep cliffPortway (main road at base of Avon Gorge)
Alpine canopy covered with soil & vegetationExtensive network of steel netsBolts to hold frost-shattered rock togetherPortway, Avon Gorge
Mass Movements of Soil & RockMechanisms/CausesManagement/Control benching rock anchors mesh curtains dental masonry shotcrete1. Slope Stabilisation2. Retaining Structures earth embankments gabions retaining walls3. Drainage Control underground drains gravel-filled trenching shotcretePrediction/Monitoring hazard mapping surveying/site investigations measurement of creep/strain measurement of groundwater pressuresShear strength pore water pressure removal of overlying material weathering lithology differences burrowing animals removal of vegetation2. Shear stress slope angle vibrations & shocks loading slopes undercutting of slope