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DESCRIPTIONA presentation about the influences Martin Luther exercise in our world nowadays. Influences that transcend religious dogmas, the translation of the Bible to German which lead to further development of German written language which also affected most of nowadays Nordic languages, including English.
- 1. J E A N C . O R T I Z C A L D E R N MARTIN LUTHER: FATHER OF THE REFORMATION U N I V E R S I D A D D E P U E R T O R I C O R E C I N T O D E A R E C I B O I N G L 3 0 9 4 L D 0
2. INTRODUCTION What would you do if you didnt agree with what someone was doing? 3. PROFESSIONAL VOCABULARY 1. Indulgence: in Catholic theology, an indulgence is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment, due for sins which have already been forgiven. 2. Reformation: to form again: improvement; betterment; correction. 3. Inquisition: an official investigation, especially one of a political or religious nature, characterized by lack of regard for individual rights, prejudice on the part of the examiners, and recklessly cruel punishments. 4. PROFESSIONAL VOCABULARY 4. Excommunication: to cut off from communion with a church or exclude from the sacraments of a church by ecclesiastical sentence. 5. Illiterate: unable to read and write. 6. Peasants: a member of a class of persons, as in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, who are small farmers or farm laborers of low social rank. 7. Printing press: a machine, as a cylinder press or rotary press, for printing on paper or the like from type, plates, etc. 5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND In the year 1450 Johannes Guttenberg modified the existing printing press a made it more accessible for the all writers, including Luther. All of Luthers writings spread throughout Europe with the help of the press. 6. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Years prior to Luthers rise, the Spanish American Conquest expanded the Roman Catholic Church influence unto the new world, because of the great expenses of the Christianization of the new land and the construction of St. Peters Basilica, the Church recurred to a new way of refunding: the selling of indulgences, documents that promised to forgive all sins, even above confession and repentance. 7. BIOGRAPHY RELIGIOUS AWAKENING Martin Luther was born at Esleben, Germany in November 10, 1483; he also died on Esleben in February 18, 1546. (1515). While studying the book of Romans he realized the doctrine of "justification by faith" (Luther began to teach that salvation is completely a gift of God's grace through Jesus received by faith), and that the Bible should be the basis of religious life and available to everyone. 8. 95 THESES AND EXCOMMUNICATION (October 31, 1517) a document that challenged the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. (January 3, 1521) Luther was given a couple of months to repent and to take back the 95 theses, to what he answered: I submit to no laws of interpreting the word of God. 9. DIET OF WORMS AND THE EDICT OF WORMS (April 17-18, 1521) an edict by Charles V outlawing Martin Luther and all his writings with death sentences and confiscatory penalties for anyone( such as a printer) found with them in their possession. "Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other, my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe." "Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen." 10. WARTBURG CASTLE (April 1521 - March 1522) Luther translated the New Testament into German to make it more accessible to the commoners; the whole Bible was translated in 1534. 11. PEASANTS WAR AND LAST DAYS OF LUTHER (Summer 1524) the war reflected the economic and religious struggles of peasants and farmers. The German Peasants' War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. It was heavily influenced by the Protestant Reformation. Luther married an ex-nun and continued with his writings, he also met other reformists (such as John Calvino and Ulrich Zwingli) and all conceived the Wittenberg Concord. 12. DIRECT QUOTES I am afraid that the schools will prove the very gates of hell, unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy Scriptures and engraving them in the heart of the youth. If I am not allowed to laugh in heaven, I don't want to go there. I am more afraid of my own heart than of the pope and all his cardinals. I have within me the great pope, Self. True humility does not know that it is humble. If it did, it would be proud from the contemplation of so fine a virtue. It is neither right nor safe to go against my conscience. 13. DIRECT QUOTES You are not only responsible for what you say, but also for what you do not say An unjust law is no law at all. If you want to change the world, pick up your pen and write. The dog is the most faithful of animals and would be much esteemed were it not so common. Our Lord God has made His greatest gifts the commonest. There comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, but he must take it because his conscience tells him it is right.... 14. WHY WAS LUTHER INFLUENTIAL? Luther's translations of the Bible helped to develop a standard version of the German language and added several principles to the art of translation (to all sorts of languages: French, English, Spanish, etc.) Primary education establishment (Luther believed that it was crucial for all Christians to read the bible and be able to comprehend it). Luther's hymns inspired the development of congregational singing in Christianity, also dancing and paintings. 15. WHY WAS LUTHER INFLUENTIAL? His marriage on June 13, 1525, to Katharina von Bora began a movement of clerical marriage within many Christian traditions. Inclusion of women into the ranks of the Lutheran Church, now days the Lutheran priestesses. Luther challenged all of the precepts orders and gave birth to a new way of thinking, freed from the shackles of tradition, hence Luthers Protestant Reformation was the very first major revolution of all times, leading some people to think he influenced the French Revolution (1789). 16. WHAT IF LUTHER HAS NOT EXISTED? If Luther never existed, the Protestant Reformation would have taken much longer, we might have been talking today about John Calvino as the father of the Reformation instead; and incidentally more bloodshed would have happened. The development of primary education for all the people regardless of social statement (reading and writing education) would have been stalled. And so the art of translation and literature spreading. The War of Peasants was directly related to Luthers preaching and it influenced the French Revolution. 17. REASON OF CHOICE I decided to choose Martin Luther because he was certainly one of the first major revolutionist of all times. Luther stood up to his beliefs and died honoring his word, even against all the odds. During the fight for his beliefs other men and woman that thought alike reunited with Luther, giving birth to the Protestant Reformation. Indirectly and unintentionally he influenced a lot of revolts and insurrections against the authorities: the Catholic Church and the Government. 18. CONCLUSION More than a reformation Luther truly brought upon the 16th centurys world a major revolution: a choice for everyone with no social, economical or genre exclusions whatsoever. He preached more than a religion, a style of life which included building fraternal relationships, having always goodwill and preserving and pursuing beliefs. He also taught the entire world that he could fight a war without a sword and a shield; instead, he used the pencil and the paper.