Madison Valley Conservation Assessment. Madison Valley Study Area

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>Madison Valley Conservation Assessment Slide 2 Madison Valley Study Area Slide 3 Slide 4 Suites of Species Make Better Umbrellas Slide 5 Fish Westslope Cutthroat Trout, Oncorynchus clarki lewisi Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout, Oncorynchus clarki bouvieri Arctic Grayling (fluvial), Thymallus arcticus Amphibians Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens Columbia Spotted Frog, Rana luteiventris Boreal Chorus Frog, Pseudacris maculata Boreal Toad, Bufo boreas boreas Reptiles Rubber Boa, Charina bottae Western Terrestrial Garter Snake, Thamnophis elegans Western Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis Birds American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histionicus Barrow's Goldeneye, Bucephala islandica Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis Ferruginous Hawk, Buteo regalis Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus Blue Grouse, Dendragapus obscurus Greater Sage Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus Great Gray Owl, Strix nebulosa Red-naped Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus nuchalis Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperii Brown Creeper, Certhia americana Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus American Pipit, Anthus rebescens American Dipper, Cinclus mexicanus Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii Black Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte atrata Mammals Masked Shrew, Sorex cinereus Townsend's Big-eared Bat, Corynorhinus townsendii Black-tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus Snowshoe Hare, Lepus townsendii Beaver, Castor canadensis Pine Squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Northern Flying Squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus Northern Pocket Gopher, Thomomys talpoides Southern Red-backed Vole, Clethrionomys gapperi Heather Vole, Phenacomys intermedius Sagebrush Vole, Lemmiscus curtatus Coyote, Canis latrans Gray Wolf, Canis lupus Mountain Lion, Felis (Puma) concolor Canada Lynx, Lynx canadensis Wolverine, Gulo gulo River Otter, Lontra canadensis American Marten, Martes americana Fisher, Martes pennanti Black Bear, Ursus americanus Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos Pronghorn, Antilocapra americana Bison, Bison (Bos) bison Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis Wapiti (Elk), Cervus elaphus Moose, Alces alces Mule Deer, Odocoileus hemionus Candidate Pool Entering Species Selection Common name, Latin binomial Slide 6 5 criteria for selecting landscape species area vulnerability functionality heterogeneity socio-economic significance Selecting Landscape Species Slide 7 Species Ranking Slide 8 Final Landscape Species WolverineWolverine Bighorn sheepBighorn sheep MooseMoose Grizzly bear (CERI)Grizzly bear (CERI) Pronghorn (CERI)Pronghorn (CERI) Elk (CERI)Elk (CERI) Red-naped sapsuckerRed-naped sapsucker Sage grouseSage grouse Boreal toadBoreal toad Columbia spotted frogColumbia spotted frog Black-backed woodpeckerBlack-backed woodpecker Warbling vireoWarbling vireo Yellow warblerYellow warbler West slope cutthroat troutWest slope cutthroat trout Arctic graylingArctic grayling Riparian HabitatRiparian Habitat Slide 9 A Simplified Approach Problem: Find the minimum set of focal species that will umbrella all major habitats Major Habitat Types Habitat 1 Habitat 2 Habitat 3 Habitat 4 Habitat 5 Habitat 6 Habitat 7 Habitat 8 Habitat 9 Characteristics of Good Focal Species Large Area Requirements Sensitive to Habitat Change Compliments Other Focal Species Species 1 Species 2 Species 3 Slide 10 Species 2 Species 1 Species 3 Species 4 Slide 11 Habitat Elements vs. Species Needs Importance Habitat GeneralistHabitat Specialist Vegetation Structure Community Composition Slide 12 Selecting Habitat Types 1.Identify Broad Habitat Types (e.g. coniferous forest, riparian, grassland steppe, etc.) 2.Subdivide by important topographical classes (lowland, alpine, etc) 3.Include specialty habitats (e.g. whitebark pine, cliff faces, standing burnt forest) Slide 13 Choosing Focal Species Start With: Need large areas to survive and persist Are sensitive to human threats or activities and optionally: Are keystone species-species whose loss would significantly alter the ecosystem Add: Species as close to target as possible Do not overlap habitat requirements with previous species Slide 14 human landscape (peoples activities) biological landscape (species requirements) intersections define the conservation landscape identify Priorities direct and focus interventions Landscape Species Approach Slide 15 Human landscapes Slide 16 Conservation Target: Maintain viable meta-populations of Columbia Spotted Frog Direct threat (stress): Predation and competition Intervention: Inventory for breeding sites in MVPU Direct threat (stress): Mortality Indirect threat: Inadequate information on breeding sites Indirect threat: Local and regional environmental contamination Indirect threat: Management emphasis on sport fishery Intervention: Elevate importance of amphibians and their mgmt Intervention: Reduce spreading through education Intervention: Mitigate contamination around breeding sites Source: Disease??? Direct threat (stress): Habitat loss Source: Loss of floodplain pools due to river regulation by dams Source: Loss of beaver Intervention: Beaver restoration Intervention: Lease water rights for conservation Source: Dewatering from irrigation, loss of beaver Intervention: Remove nonnative fish Source: Historical non- native fish introductions Goal: To conserve and restore all major wildlife habitat types and their component species with emphasis on ungulate winter range, riparian ecosystems, and linkages between mountain chains and mountain valleys. Conceptual models Slide 17 Mapped Human Influences Housing (Structures) Density (Weighted) Road Density Roadway Salting Motor Recreation (Snowmobiling) Grazing (Public Lands) Mining Water Quality Dewatering Fish Stocking (Non-native Introductions) Fire Severity Slide 18 Habitat Models Information Sources Existing Models Literature Review Expert Interviews Workshops Slide 19 Habitat Slide 20 connectivity Slide 21 Focal Species (Scientific name) Current Status: Current Threats: Habitat Analysis: Conservation Strategies: Species Report Outline Slide 22 summary Analysis Slide 23 Umbrella effects Slide 24 Slide 25 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (378 vertebrate species) Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Setting priorities Species Richness Connectivity Hotspots Addressing Key Threats Slide 30 Current Biodiversity potential Slide 31 Loss of Biodiversity Potential Slide 32 Papoose Creek to Raynolds Pass Sagebrush Steppe Norris Hill to North Meadow Creek Jack Creek Drainage Madison Willow Flats Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity Slide 33 Potential habitat connectivity Slide 34 Current Habitat Connectivity Slide 35 Change in habitat connectivity Slide 36 Priority Areas for Wildlife Connectivity Wolf Creek to Raynolds Pass Norris Hill to North Meadow Creek Central Valley Major Drainages and foothills Virginia City Hill Slide 37 Analyzing threats Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Priorities Based on Threats Protect and restore aquatic habitats that support fish and amphibians. Restore natural fire patterns to restore fire-dependent habitats and fire-dependent species. Protect and restore sagebrush and native grassland habitats. Reduce the impact of subdivision development on wildlife. Mitigate the impact of roads through improved design through travel corridors. Slide 42 So What? Madison County Planning Board (decision support tool, conservation overlay) Forest Service Management Plans Madison Valley Futuring Committee Individual Landowners Slide 43 Fine-scale analysis Slide 44 Area Growth 1905 - 2005 1905 - 2005 Maps and Animation Compliments of the Sonoran Institute Slide 45 Predicted Loss of Wildlife Habitat Predicted loss of grizzly bear habitat using growth projections for 2025 Slide 46 Major supporters M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust The Turner Foundation Wildlife Conservation Society Special thanks to: The Madison Valley Ranchlands Group, US Forest Service, MT Fish Wildlife and Parks, The Greater Yellowstone Coalition, MT Audubon Society, and Trust for Public Lands Slide 47 Choosing a Focal Species Suite to Create a Complete Conservation Umbrella Goals: Conserve sufficient quantity and quality of all major habitat types to support ecologically functional populations of all native species present in the planning area. Implement mitigation strategies that effectively reduce the impact of all activities that significantly threaten the persistence of any native species to levels that insure a high likelihood of persistence for the next 100 years. Ensure the continuation of all natural ecosystem processes (either through natural occurrence or simulation by prescription) that are necessary for the long-term persistence of all native species within their natural range of variability of abundance. Respect the importance of wildlife to local economies and culture, and implementing strategies to maximize positive, and minimizes negative, effects of wildlife on these economies while preserving cultural values. Slide 48 Complete Conservation Requires Multiple Umbrellas Area Complete Communities - all native species in natural abundance Complete Ecosystem Function Human Values Habitat Threats Processes Slide 49 Hierarchy of Conservation Needs Area Sufficient area to support individuals and populations at ecologically functional levels Habitat Availability of appropriate habitat types in sufficient quantity and quality to support individuals and populations Security Security from direct and indirect threats that threaten the survival or natural abundance of individuals or populations Ecological Processes Allow or simulate natural processes to sustain natural habitat heterogeneity Social Acceptance Public values that support conservation Slide 50 Using Focal Species to Address Conservation Needs Need Focal Species Attribute AreaLandscape Species Select large area generalists to protect sufficient area and diversity of habitat types HabitatHabitat Types Make sure suite of focal species covers all major habitat types in the area SecurityThreats Make sure suite of focal species covers all major threats that impact wildlife populations in the area Ecological Processes Ecological Processes and Key Species Include key species needed to maintain natural community, and species that depend on ecological processes to sustain ecologically functional populations Social AcceptanceSocio-economic Values Identify values that compliment or conflict with conservation objectives Slide 51 Two Day Selection Process One day pre-workshop preparation One day workshop Slide 52 Pre-workshop Preparation List of native species sorted by area requirements List of major habitat types in planning area List of major threats in planning area List of important ecological processes List of key species List of important socio-economic values Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Candidate SpeciesMajor Habitat Types Major ThreatsKey SpeciesImportant Ecological Processes Important Socio- Economic Values American Badger American Beaver American Bison American Black Bear American Kestrel American Marten American Mink American Pika Big Brown Bat Bighorn Sheep Black-tailed Jackrabbit Blue Grouse Bobcat Boreal Chorus Frog Boreal Owl Bull Snake Bushy-tailed Woodrat California Myotis Canada Lynx Cinereus Shrew Columbian Ground Squirrel Common Raven Cooper's Hawk Cougar Coyote Deer Mouse Desert Cottontail Dwarf Shrew Elk Ermine Ferruginous Hawk Fisher Golden Eagle Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel Gray Wolf Great Basin Pocket Mouse Great Gray Owl Great Horned Owl Grizzly Bear Hispid Pocket Mouse Hoary Bat Least Chipmunk Little Brown Bat Long-billed Curlew Long-eared Myotis Long-eared Owl Long-legged Myotis Long-tailed Vole Long-tailed Weasel Meadow Vole Merriam's Shrew Montane Shrew Montane Vole Moose Mountain Cottontail Mule Deer Muskrat North American Porcupine Northern Flying Squirrel Northern Goshawk Northern Grasshopper Mouse Northern Harrier Northern Pocket Gopher Northern Pygmy-Owl Northern Raccoon Northern River Otter Northern Saw-whet Owl Northern ShrikeOrd's Kangaroo Rat Prairie Vole Preble's Shrew Pronghorn Red Fox Red Squirrel Red-tailed Chipmunk Red-tailed Hawk Richardson's Ground Squirrel Rough-legged Hawk Ruffed Grouse Sage Grouse Sagebrush Vole Sharp-shinned Hawk Short-eared Owl Silver-haired Bat Snowshoe Hare Southern Red-backed Vole Spotted Bat Spruce Grouse Striped Skunk Swainson's Hawk Tiger Salamander Townsend's Big-eared Bat Turkey Vulture Uinta Chipmunk Uinta Ground Squirrel Vagrant Shrew Water Shrew Water Vole Western Harvest Mouse Western Heather Vole Western Jumping Mouse Western Rattlesnake Western Screech-Owl Western Toad Western Small-footed Myotis White-footed Mouse White-tailed Deer White-tailed Jackrabbit Wolverine Wyoming Ground Squirrel Wyoming Pocket Gopher Yellow-bellied Marmot Yellow-pine Chipmunk Yuma Myotis Agriculture Alpine Meadow Aspen Foothill Shrub/Xeric Woodland Lentic Water Lotic Water Mesic Shrub Montane Conifer Native Grassland Non-Native Grass Recently Burnt Forest Riparian Forest Riparian Shrub Rock/Cliff/Tal us Shrub-steppe Subalpine Forest Wetlands (Marsh) Dewatering Exotic Disease Farming Fencing Fire Fire Suppression Fishing Grazing Harvest (Hunting) Homesite Development Invasive Aliens Loss Of Ecosystem Integrity Management/Pr edator Control Migratory Sensitivity Mineral Mining Motorized Recreation Nonmotorized Recreation Nonnative Introductions Oil/Gas/Cbm Pollution Powerlines Road Chemical/Sedi mentation Roading Timber Harvest Vehicular Traffic Weed/Pest Control American Beaver American Bison Elk? Gray Wolf Periodic Fire Grazing Riparian Flooding Sport Hunting and Fishing Cattle Ranching and Rural Lifestyle Open Space, Wild Areas, and Wildlife Viewing Opportunities Slide 56 Species Area Requirements Five functional categories Large Landscape Classic landscape species Habitat generalists requiring large contiguous, or connected areas of habitat (&gt; 500 ha). Meso-scale require moderately size contiguous habitat areas (~ 5 - 500 ha). Habitat Selectors travel between relatively small habitat patches but not sensitive to habitat changes between patches. Restricted or Sedentary Small home ranges &lt; 5 ha Habitat Specialists Majority of seasonal use tied to one, or few habitat types. Critical habitats often small patch sizes Microhabitat Specialists Restricted to very specific and very small habitats (e.g. warm springs) Slide 57 Species PoolLand Area Requiremen t Category Cohort 1Cohort 2Cohort 3Cohort 4Cohort 5Cohort 6 Wolverine Sage Grouse Grizzly Bear Ferruginous Hawk Gray Wolf Golden Eagle American Bison Elk Long-billed Curlew Cougar American Bl...</p>


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