louis xiv (1638-1715)

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  • 1. Louis XIV (1638-1715)Benedict Gombocz

2. Synopsis Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France. In 1643, he became King of France. He began reforming France in 1661. Six years later, he conquered the Spanish Netherlands, and fought against the Dutch in the subsequent Franco-Dutch war of 1672-1678. He caused open enmity by the 1680s. In 1688, he presided over a war between France and the Grand Alliance. He died in Versailles, France on September 1, 1715; he was 76. Louis XIV led an absolute monarchy during the classical period; he rescinded the Edict of Nantes and is known for his belligerent foreign policy. 3. Childhood and Early ReignChildhood and Early Reign Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France on September 5, 1638, andwas sanctified Louis-Dieudonn, which means Gift of God in French. His mother was the Hapsburg Spanish queen Anne of Austria; his father was LouisXIII, who was the King of France when Louis XIV was born. Louis XIV also had a brother, Philippe, who was two years his junior. His father died on May 14, 1643, when Louis was only four and a half years old. Nothing more than a toddler, Louis XIV inherited his fathers throne; he was now theKing of 19 million French citizens and an extremely unsteady government. During the course of his youth, Louis XIV was well-informed as a leader, and receiveda practical education instead of an academic one. The Italian-born Chief Minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin, Louis XIVs godfather, wastasked with educating the boy in history, politics, and the arts. Nicolas de Neufville de Villeroy, Louis XIVs governor, was assigned to watch the lad,but episodes like Louis XIVs near drowning suggest that the monarch wasdisregarded as a kid, if not as a ruler in the making.Louis XIV as a young child 4. King Louis XIII, Queen Anne of Austria, and their son Louis XIV withCardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse 5. Childhood and Early Reign cont.Childhood and Early Reign cont. In 1648, when Louis was barely ten, the Parliament of Paris revolted againsthis chief minister, Jules Mazarin. In an effort to overthrow the crown, they conducted a civil war called theForde to oppose the parliaments supporters. Louis XIV endured several hardships, such as poverty and starvation, duringthe long war. Mazarin, to Louis XIVs relief, finally defeated the rebels in 1653. Following the end of the civil war, Mazarin began forming an elegantadministration as Louis XIV looked on and watched his teacher; by now,Louis XIV reached adult status, even though he was still afraid ofquestioning Mazarins power.France at the outbreak of the Forde 6. Battle of the Faubourg Saint Antoine by the walls of theBastille in Paris, 1652 7. Childhood and Early Reign cont.Childhood and Early Reign cont. Louis XIV fell in love with Marie Mancini, Mazarins niece, a few years later. However, he chose his responsibility over love, and instead married Marie-Thrse (Maria Theresa) of Austria, the daughter of the King of Spain, in1660; the marriage guaranteed that the treaty that Mazarin wanted to signwith Habsburg Spain would be approved.Marie Mancini, Simon Vouet, c. 1665 8. Maria Theresa, Andreas Mller, c. 1727 9. Reforming FranceReforming France While Louis XIVs mother, Anne, became his regent when he ascended to the throneas a child, Chief Minister Mazarin held real power during Louis XIVs early rule. It was only, in fact, when Mazarin died in 1661, when Louis XIV was in his early 20s,that the young king formally assumed control over the French government. Upon taking full responsibility for the kingdom, Louis XIV immediately sought toreform France how he envisioned it. As absolute monarch, his first objective was to consolidate and rein in control ofFrance. With assistance from his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIVintroduced reforms that lowered Frances deficit and advanced industrialdevelopment. Throughout his rule, Louis XIV was successful in reforming Frances disorderedsystem of taxation and restrict earlier chaotic borrowing practices. He also appropriately exempted members of the aristocracy from paying taxes;ironically, this made them even more fiscally reliant on the crown.Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Philippe deChampaigne,1666 10. Reforming France cont.Reforming France cont. Louis XIV obliged local nobles to abandon their former political influenceby executing governmental reforms toward a more orderly and stableFrench government; he established a more integrated administration withthe bourgeoisie, or the middle class, as its basis. In addition to his reforms to the government, Louis XIV set up numerousprograms and institutions to permeate more of the arts in French culture; inthis manner, the Academy of Inscriptions and Belle-Lettres and the RoyalAcademy of Music were founded in 1663 and 1666, respectively. Louis XIV also assigned Colbert to supervise the construction of the ParisObservatory between 1667-1672.Academy of Inscriptions and Belle-Lettres 11. Royal Academy of Music 12. Foreign RelationsForeign Relations Louis XIV is infamous for his aggressive method of foreign policy. He invaded the Spanish Netherlands in 1667, considering it his wifes legalinheritance. The War of Devolution , as the conflict would be known as, lasted a year; it endedwith Frances surrender and returned the land to Spain. Occupying a few towns in Flanders was Frances only successes. Unhappy with the result, Louis XIV fought against the Dutch in a six-year Franco-Dutch war (1672-1678), during which France took more land in Flanders and theFranche-Comt, a victory that rose France to the status of a dominant Europeanpower; this status, along with Louis XIVs campaigns to continually multiply territorialgains by way of military force, made France a danger to other European states. By the end of the 1680s, those states, including Spain, England, and the Holy RomanEmpire, responded by engaging in what would become known as the Grand Alliance. In 1688, a war erupted between France and the Grand Alliance; it was fought for allof a decade, and it would be known as the Nine Yeas War.Louis XIV crosses the Rhine at Lobith,12 June 1672 13. War of Devolution and French occupation ofFlandersWar of Devolution French occupation of Flanders 14. Rhine campaign, 1688-1689 and Siege of Namur,1695Rhine campaign, 1688-1689 Siege of Namur, 1695 15. Spanish Netherlands campaign, 1689-1697 16. Decline and DeathDecline and Death By the 1680s, Louis XIV began to invite open hostility; part of it was due to his attempts toestablish religious uniformity in France. The king was a devoted Catholic, and his oppression of the Huguenots began with his 1685withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes, which officially gave the Huguenots rights as a religiousmajority. Under the Edict of Fontainebleau, Louis XIV ordered the demolition of Protestant churches andschools in France; he also forced all children to be educated and baptized as Catholics. The withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes and the edict that replaced it were committed to isolateProtestants, who felt obligated to leave France and find religious autonomy elsewhere in Europe. France kept most of its original land after the war against the Grand Alliance, but its resourceswere considerably weak. The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) only facilitated Louis XIVs fall as a leader; duringthis war, Louis XIV appeared to many of his people to put his own personal interests before hiscountrys because his objective was to protect the right of his grandson, Phillip V, to ascend tothe throne of the Spanish Empire. The long war was so expensive for France that it led to famine and put the country deep in debt. The public went from welcoming Louis XIV as a hero to blaming him for Frances financialdevastation.War of the Spanish Succession 17. Map of the Spanish War of Succession 18. Decline and Death cont.Decline and death cont. Louis XIV died of an infection in Versailles, France on September 1, 1715,four days short of his 77th birthday. After his death, his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV, the last male ofthe Duc de Bourgogne, assumed the throne.Ludwig XV as a child 19. Basilica of Saint Denis, where Louis XIV isburied 20. SourcesSources Sources: http://www.biography.com/people/louis-xiv-9386885#decline-and-death Other links: http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?id=31 http://www2.stetson.edu/~psteeves/classes/louisxiv.html http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/frde/hd_frde.htmFrance flag map

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