literacy in the internet age: dyslexia and online learning in higher education

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  • Final LITERACY Conference: Wien, February 2015

    LITERACY in the Internet age: Potentials and limitations to online learning

    Colin Harrison, University of Nottingham, UK colin.harrison.ac.uk

  • Who is dyslexic?

    The term dyslexic is problematic.But lets agree to use the term in two ways: For a student who has a reading problem related to poor alphabetic and/or phonological codingFor any student who is judged to have a major problem with reading, writing and/or spellingIt is estimated that between 1.2% and 1.5% of students in Higher Education in the UK are dyslexic (Singleton, 1999)

  • What is the root of the dyslexics problem?

    Working memory and the phonological loop

    Working memory and executive control (Baddeley, 1996)

  • What is the root of the dyslexics problem?

    Working memory and the phonological loop

    Working memory and executive control (Baddeley, 1996)

  • What is the root of the dyslexics problem?

    Working memory and the phonological loop

    Working memory and executive control (Baddeley, 1996) Rapid word recognition and Subvocalisation

  • Fluent readerWord callerGarden variety poor readerDyslexic reader

  • Fluent reader?Word caller?Garden variety poor reader?L+ Dyslexic readerL- Dyslexic readerPoor spellersGood spellers

  • (sources: Baddeley, 1996; Snowling 1997; Stanovich, 1980; Kintsch, 1998) HighLow

    B Kn/ VocabPhono LoopWord RecComp LocalText IntegComp Final

  • What are some of the particular problems for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Even if the course is multimedia, the reading level of the course material is likely to be very challengingEven if the course is multimedia, the volume of reading in the course material is likely to be very challengingLack of group interaction and learning with and from peersLack of social interaction and emotional support

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own paceNo humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting options

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsBut the pace is always too fast!

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsYes there is- I have to post online!

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsBut my tutor cant give me all the help I need!

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsAnd my classmates have their own anxieties!

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsText-to-speech is difficult to understand if youre a poor reader.

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsBut poor comprehenders are poor at judging the trustworthiness of sources

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsBut can I trust it?And can I cite it?

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting optionsYes- this can help: but it takes time to do, and not all sources that I have to read are editable.

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting options

  • What are some of the advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    Students can learn at their own pace No humiliating exposure of weaknesses in front of peersAccess to additional resources:Extra tutor supportAsynchronous peer supportOnline/offline tools:Text-to-speech; speech-to-textGlossing/summarising/abstracting sourcesPodcast/video source materialText reformatting options

  • So are there more disadvantages than advantages for dyslexic students in online learning? social computing tools, while supporting different learning paces and cognitive styles in some cases, are at the same time producing close to insurmountable barriers to students with cognitive disabilities in general, and dyslexia in particular. (Redecker, 2009)

  • So are there more disadvantages than advantages for dyslexic students in online learning?

    What we do know:TXT-ing does not damage childrens literacy (Wood, 2011)Apart from phone social media, only 6% of us are producers (Crook, 2008)Forums can negatively impact motivation and confidence (Timmis, 2004)

  • Finally- what are the moral issues in supporting higher education students who have a learning difficulty?

    The purpose of an exam is to find out what a student can do in three hours. If we gave everyone two weeks, every student would get 100%. (University professor)

  • Finally- what are the moral issues in supporting higher education students who have a learning difficulty?

    We are comfortable helping the L+ student

    but are there equity ssues a issues in how much help support we we give to the L- student? give to the L- student?

  • Dyslexia recognised by University; Face-to-face courseColoured paper handoutsGeneral tutor supportStudent gained MA degree

  • Dyslexia recognised by University; Multimedia blended learning online courseStudent sent tutor independent report: IQ=105; Reading age = 12.5Skype tutor supportText-to-speechSevere difficulties in meeting M-level goals

  • Encouraging more reading practice to speed up word recognition and vocabularyBetter text-to-speech software to support reading while listeningMore guided support to develop Critical Internet Literacy skills (Al Wabil, 2007)Assessing relevanceAssessing trustworthinessGenerating better search termsMore collaborative/social learningMore guidance in using intelligent writing support tools such as Ginger and Co-WriterThe Future:What are the most urgent needs of the online HE student?

  • Final LITERACY Conference: Wien, February 2015

    LITERACY in the Internet age: Potentials and limitations to online learning

    Colin Harrison, University of Nottingham, UK colin.harrison.ac.uk

    ***************************

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