Lesson downloads IELTS Academic Module preparation ... writing...Page 1 of 15 Lesson downloads IELTS Academic Module preparation Writing Lesson 3 Introduction In lesson 2 we looked more at how to ...

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    Lessondownloads>IELTSAcademicModulepreparation>Writing>Lesson3

    Introduction

    Inlesson2welookedmoreathowtodescribetablesfortask1oftheIELTSwritingtest.Youalsolearnedsometipsonhowtoorganiseanadvantagesanddisadvantagestypediscursivecomposition.Inthislesson,welltakeafirstlookatanothercommonkindoftask1:describingcharts.Thenwellexaminemorewaysofdevelopinganargumentfortask2compositions.

    Inthislessonyouwill

    learnaboutdifferenttypesofchart. practisegettinginformationfromcharts. learntorecognisestaticanddynamiccharts. reviewsimpleverbtensesfordescribingcharts. learnhowtoorganiseabalanceddiscussion. becomemoreawareofformallanguageforcompositions.

    IELTSWRITINGTASK1:CHARTS

    Activity1>Typesofchart>8minutes

    Numbersandstatisticscanbeshowninmanydifferenttypesofchart.Dontworrytoomuchifyouarenotusedtoreadingcharts.Thechartsinthetestwillnotbecomplicated.However,youdoneedtoknowhowtoreadandunderstandthesebasiccharttypes:

    1Barchart2Proportionalbarchart3Piechart4Linegraph

    a)Matchthefourtypesofchartwiththechartsshownhere.

    b)Whichofthechartsshow(s)

    1thesituationatonepointintime.2changeovertime.3howatotalfigureisdividedintoparts.4comparisonsfordifferentgroups.5howonevaluechangesovertime.6howseveralvalueschangeovertime.

  • Page 2 of 15

    Activity2>Understandingcharts>10minutes

    ThefirstthingsyoushoulddowhenyouattemptIELTStask1are

    readthequestiontwiceverycarefully. lookatthetableorchartverycarefullyuntilyouaresurewhatitshowsandwhatitdoesnt

    show.

    Therearethreeimportantthingstolookatinachartbeforeyouwrite

    thetitleofthechartthiswilltellyouwhatisbeingshownoverall,anditusuallygivesthetimeperiodthatitrepresents(e.g.19802000)

    thetitlesoftheverticalandhorizontalaxesthesewilltellyouwhattheunitsofmeasurementare(e.g.centimetres,kilos,euros)andwhatgroupsarebeingcompared

    thekeyorlegend(ifthereisone)thiswilltellyouwhatgroupsortimeperiodsareshown.

    [Tip:Thetitlesandlabelsonthechartalsogiveyouusefulvocabularytouseinyourdescription]

    Lookatthischartanddecideifthestatementsbelowaretrue(T)orfalse(F)accordingtotheinformationshown,orifitisimpossibletotell(I).

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    InflowofforeignworkersintoAustralia19922001

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

    Thou

    sands

    PermanentsettlersTemporaryworkers

    ThisinformationisfromtheOECDstatisticswebsite:http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,2639,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.htmlSpecifically:http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/default.aspx?DatasetCode=CSP6

    1ThechartshowshowmanyAustralianstravelledabroadforworkbetween1992and2001 T/F/I2ThechartshowsthenumbersofworkersimmigratingintoAustraliabetween1992and2001 T/F/I3ThetotalnumberofimmigrantsintoAustraliain1992wasabout54thousand T/F/I4Thechartcomparestwotypesofforeignworker. T/F/I540percentofforeignworkerswhocametoAustraliain1992werepermanentsettlers. T/F/I6ThetotalnumberofpermanentforeignworkersinAustraliain1995wasabout34thousand. T/F/I7Justunder15thousandtemporaryforeignworkersenteredAustraliain1992. T/F/I8In2001fewertemporaryworkersarrivedthanworkerswhowerepermanentsettlers. T/F/I

    Activity3>Understandingcharts>10minutes

    Describingachartissimilarinlotsofwaystodescribingatableoffigures.Rememberthatyouhavetodothefollowingwhenyoufirstlookatatable:

    checkdatestoseewhatthetimeperiodis checkwhattheunitsofmeasurementare decidewhatthemostimportantinformationis decidewhatdetailsarenotsoimportant makecomparisonsbetweenimportantfigures roundfiguresupordownwhenpossible

    Youshoulddothesamethingswhenyoustudyachart.

    a)Lookatthepiechartbelowandlookforallthethingsinthelistabove.

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    ImmigrantlabourforceinAustraliabyregionorcountryofbirth,1991(thousands)

    62%17%

    9%

    4%3% 5%

    Europe

    Asia

    NewZealand

    NorthAfricaandtheMiddleEastAmerica

    Other

    ThisinformationisfromtheOECDstatisticswebsite:http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,2639,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.htmlSpecifically:http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/default.aspx?DatasetCode=CSP6

    b)Nowcompletethetextwithphrases,wordsandnumbersfromthebox.

    1991 afifth atenth four majority secondlargest smallersmallest thethirdlargest three(x2) twothirds

    ThechartshowsthedifferentnationalitiesthatmadeuptheimmigrantworkforceinAustraliain1.. .Itsclearfromthechartthattherewere2.maingroupsofworkers:Europeans,AsiansandNewZealanders.Onlyarelativelysmallnumberofworkerswerefromotherregions.

    The3.offoreignworkerscamefromEurope.Infact,nearly4.ofallimmigrantworkerswereofEuropeanorigin.The5..groupofforeignworkersinthelabourforcewereAsians.Theyrepresentedjustunder6..oftheimmigrantlabourforce.NewZealanders,whomadeupalmost7oftheforeignworkforceinthatyear,were8group.

    Thenumberofworkersfromothernationalitieswasmuch9.WorkersfromNorthAfricaandtheMiddleEast,forexample,wereonly10..percentofthewholeforeignlabourforce.The11..nationalitygroup,however,wereAmericans.Theserepresentedonly12..percentofallforeignworkersinAustraliain1991.

    Activity4>Staticanddynamiccharts>10minutes

    Thepiechartinactivity3showedthesituationatonepointintime.Thiskindofchartiscalledastaticchart.Whenyoudescribeastaticchart,youonlyneedtousesimpletenses(presentsimpleorpastsimple,forexample).

    a)LookagainatthedescriptionyoucompletedinActivity3andunderlinealltheverbsinpastsimple.

    Nowlookatthechartbelow.ItcomparesthesizeoftheimmigrantworkforceinAustralia1991withthatof2001.Inotherwords,itshowschangeovertime.Thiskindofchartissometimescalledadynamicchart.Todescribedynamiccharts,youneedtouseavarietyoftenses,suchas:

  • Page 5 of 15

    simplepast Between1991and2001,thepopulationincreased. pastperfectBy2001,thepopulationhadincreased

    ImmigrantlabourforceinAustraliabyregionorcountryofbirth(19912001)

    1332.11142.1

    378.0582.1

    187.3251.1

    94.4119.675.6

    99.9101.6

    172.5

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    1991 2001

    Thou

    sand

    s

    OtherAmericaNorthAfricaNewZealandAsiaEurope

    ThisinformationisfromtheOECDstatisticswebsite:http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,2639,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.htmlSpecifically:http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/default.aspx?DatasetCode=CSP6

    b)Nowcompletethedescriptionofthechartbelowbyputtingtheverbsinthecorrecttense.

    ThebarchartcompareshowtheimmigrantlabourforceinAustralia1(change)between1991and2001. Thefirstthingtonoteisthatthetotalnumberofimmigrantworkers2(increase)overthisperiodbyabout200,000.However,there3(be)otherimportantchangesinthemakeupoftheimmigrantworkforce.By2001,forexample,thenumberofEuropeanimmigrantworkers4(fall)byalmost200,000.Incontrast,thenumberofallothernationalitiesintheworkforce5(rise).In1991thenumberofAsianworkers,forinstance,6(stand)ataround380,000.Tenyearslater,thisfigure7(go)uptoover580,000.

    Activity5>Moreaboutdynamicchartsandverbtenses>10minutes.

    Somedynamiccharts,liketheoneinActivity4,showachangeinvaluesfromonetimeinthepasttoanothertimeinthepast.Othercharts,however, maycomparethepastwiththepresent.Occasionally,chartsevenshowpredictionsaboutthefuture.Ineachcase,youneedtomakesurethatyouareusingthecorrectverbtensestodescribethechart.Forexample,youcoulduse

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    Presentperfect:Thepriceofoilhasrisenby0.10everymonthsinceJanuary.Presentperfectcontinuous:Averagetemperatureshavebeenincreasingsincethebeginningofthecentury.Futureperfect:Thepopulationwillhavereachedsixtymillionby2030.

    a)Rememberthatitisimportanttousethecorrecttimephraseswiththetenseyouareusing.Choosethephraseswhichcangointhegaps(theremaybemorethanone):

    1.pricesfell.AIn2005BBy2005CAfter2005DSince2005

    2..priceshadfallen.AIn2005BBy2005CAfter2005DSince2005

    3.priceshavefallenAIn2005BBy2005CAfter2005DSince2005

    4.priceshavebeenfalling.AIn2005BBy2005CAfter2005DSince2005

    5.priceswillhavefallen.AIn2015BBy2015CAfter2015DSince2015

    b)Nowlookatthechartbelowandcompletethedescriptionwiththecorrectverbtense.

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    Ratioofthepopulationaged65andovertothelabourforce

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    Turkey

    Korea

    Canada

    Australia

    UnitedKingdom

    SlovakRepublic

    CzechRepublic

    Poland

    Japan

    France

    Italy

    Hungary

    20002020

    ThisinformationisfromtheOECDstatisticswebsite:http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,2639,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.htmlSpecifically: http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/default.aspx?DatasetCode=CSP6

    Thechart1..(show)theratioofthepopulationaged65andovertothelabourforceoftwelvedifferentcountries,andhowthis2.. (change)by2020.

    Itisclearfromthechartthatin2000somecountriesalreadyhadahighratio.InItaly,forexample,thepopulationaged65andover3.. (be)over40%ofthesizeoftheworkingpopulation.Hungaryalso4.. (have)ahighratioin2000.Itsretiredpopulationwasover30%thesizeofitsworkingpopulation.However,thefigurevariedalotbetweencountries.InTurkeyandKorea,forexample,it5.. (be)onlyjustover10%.

    Thechartalso6.. (make)predictionsabouthowthisratio7.. (change)inthefuture.Itisclearthatallthecountriesshownhaveanagingpopulation.Hungary8.. (have)thebiggestchange.By2020theratioofretiredpeopletoworkers9..(reach)almost60%.Thisisanincreaseofalmost25%.EveninKoreatheratio10..(increase)toover30%by2020.

  • Page 8 of 15

    IELTSWRITINGTASK2:DEVELOPINGANARGUMENT

    Activity6>Analysingthequestion>7minutes

    Inpart2oftheIELTSwritingtestyoumaybeaskedtoexpressyouropinionaboutacontroversialissueordebateinotherwords,asubjectforwhichpeopletendtohavestronglyopposingopinions.Heresanexample:

    Presentawrittenargumentorcasetoaneducatedreaderwithnospecialknowledgeofthefollowingtopic.

    Relyingonfossilfuelssuchasoilandcoalforourenergyneedsisbecomingincreasinglyimpractical.Therisingcostanddecreasingsupplyofthesefuels,alongwithconcernsabouttheglobalwarmingtheycause,meanswemustfindanalternative.Theonlyrealisticalternativeisnuclearenergy.

    Towhatextentdoyouagreeordisagree?

    Youshoulduseyourownideas,knowledgeandexperienceandsupportyourargumentswithexamplesandrelevantevidence.

    Asalways,beforeyoustartwriting,spendafewminutesthinkingaboutwhatthequestionasks,andwhatthebestwaytoansweris.Readtheexamplequestionaboveonemoretime,andthendecidewhetherthestatementsbelowaretrueorfalse.

    1Thequestionaskswhetherornotfossilfuelsareimpractical. T/F2Youshouldgiveadetaileddescriptionofhowfossilfuelscauseglobalwarming. T/F3Thequestionaskswhethernuclearenergyisagoodalternativetofossilfuels. T/F4Youshoulddiscusstheargumentsforandagainstnuclearenergy. T/F5Youshoulddiscusstheargumentsforandagainstfossilfuels. T/F6Youshouldmentionotheralternativeenergyresources. T/F7Youshouldgivedetailedhistoricalaccountsofnucleardisasters. T/F8Youshouldonlymentionyouropinions. T/F9Youshouldexpressyouropinions,butshowawarenessofothers. T/F10Youshouldincluderelevantfactsthathelptosupportyouropinions. T/F

    Activity7>Gettingideas>5minutes

    Theexamplequestionyousawinthepreviousactivityinvitesyoutoexpressyouropinionaboutnuclearenergy.Onewaytodothisistodiscussargumentsforandagainstthisenergysource.

    a)Takeafewminutestojotdownargumentsforandagainsttheuseofnuclearpower.

  • Page 9 of 15

    b)Herearesomeideaswethoughtof. Whichofthesepointsareforandwhichagainst?WriteF(for)orA(against) nexttoeachpoint.

    Allwasteiscontainedinsteadofgoingdirectlyintotheatmosphere.Theminingofuraniumcausesenvironmentaldamage.Modernnuclearpowerstationsaredesignedwithmanysafetyfeatures.Thereisalwaysadangerthathumanerrorornegligencecouldcauseanaccident.Nationsthathavenooilandgasreservescanproducetheirownenergyindependently.Nuclearpowerstationscouldbetargetedbyterrorists.Nuclearpowerisamuchmoreeconomicalwaytoproduceenergy.Safelydisposingofradioactivewasteisexpensive.Thereareotheralternativestofossilfuels,suchaswindandsolarpower,whichposefewerrisks.Nuclearpoweroffersanalmostlimitlesssupplyofenergy.Nuclearpowerstationsaresaferplacesforpeopletoworkthancoalfiredpowerstations.Thereisthedangerofahugeenvironmentaldisaster.Nuclearpowerstationsdonotproducegreenhousegases.Radioactivewasteposesadangerforcenturies..

    Activity8>Organisingabalanceddiscussion>10minutes

    Onewaytoorganiseabalanceddiscussionissimplytodividetheargumentsforandtheargumentsagainstintotwoseparatecentralparagraphs.YouwouldneedtoconnectideasusingwordsandexpressionssuchasthoseyoulearnedinLessons1and2.

    a)Connecttheideasintheexampleparagraphbelowwithwordsfromthebox.

    AsaresultFinallyFirstofallFurthermoreInsteadSecondly

    Whatarethefactorsinfavourofnuclearpowerasanenergysource?[1].,itisaneconomicalsourceofenergy.Thepowergeneratedbynuclearpowerstationscostsmuchlesstoproducethanfromcoaloroilfiredstations.[2].,unliketraditionalpowerstations,nuclearpowerplantsdonotpollutetheatmospherewiththeirwaste.[3].,thewasteisstoredinsafecontainersdeepunderground.[4].,amovetonuclearpowerwillreducegreenhousesgasesthatareresponsibleforglobalwarmingintheatmosphere.[5].,statisticsshowthatpowerstationsareactuallysaferplacesforpeopletoworkthancoalfiredpowerstations.[6].,nuclearpowercanpotentiallysupplyallourenergyneedsformanycenturiestocome.

    However,anothereffectivewaytoorganiseyourdiscussionistomatchargumentwithcounterargumentinthesameparagraph.Thiscanoftenbeamorepersuasivewaytopresentyourviews.Youdemonstrateawarenessofothersopinions,butatthesametimeyoushowwhythesearemistaken.Again,connectingwordsandphraseshelptoholdtheparagraphtogether.

    b)Connecttheideasintheexampleparagraphbelowwithwordsfromthebox.

    causingdespiteforinstance moreimportantlymoreover while

    Theclaimsmadebythoseinfavourofnuclearpowerdonotstanduptocloseexamination.Itisoftensaid,[1].,thatnuclearpowerdoesnotdamagetheenvironment.[2].itistruethatgreenhousegasesarenotproduced,miningforuraniumcausesrealdamagetotheenvironment.[3]., manyreactorsuseriversforcooling.Thisraisestemperaturesintheriverwater,

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    [4].harmtolifeinandaroundthoserivers.Itisalsoarguedthatthetechnologyofmodernreactorsmakesaccidentsalmostimpossible.[5].theseclaims,accidentshavehappenedmostfamouslyatChernobyl.Noamountoftechnologycanpreventhumanerror,carelessnessorlaziness.Allofthesecancausedeadlyaccidents.[6].,nuclearpowerplantscouldbecomethetargetofterroristattacks.Technologycoulddoverylittletopreventsuchanattack,andtheconsequencesareunthinkable.

    Activity9>Developingamoreformalstyle>10minutes

    Noticethatintheexampleparagraphabove,whichcontrastsargumentwithcounterargument,thewriterusesthepassivetointroduceideas:

    Itisoftensaid.Itisalsoarguedthat

    Thisisonewaytogiveyourwritingamoreformalstyle.

    a)Rewriteeachofthesesentencesbyputtingthemainverbinthepassive.

    1Peoplesaythatwindpowerturbinesarecompletelyharmless.

    Itissaidthatwindpowerturbinesarecompletelyharmless.

    2Therearepeoplewhoarguethatsolarpowerwillneverreplacefossilfuels.________________________________________________

    3ExpertspredictthatverysoonChinawillbetheworldsleadingeconomicandpoliticalpower._______________________________________________

    4ManypeopleregardtheInternetasagreatforcefordemocracyandfreedomofspeech._______________________________________________

    5Researchershopethattheywillsoonfindavaccineforavianflu._______________________________________________

    6Everyoneknowsthatheartdiseaseisthehighestcauseofdeath._______________________________________________

    Thereareanumberofotherwaystomakeyourwritingmoreformalinstyle.Asageneralrule,rememberthatformalwritingisdifferentfromspokenlanguage,andyourcompositionshouldntsoundtoochatty.Hereanumberofthingsyoushouldavoid.

    b)Matchtherulesontheleftwiththeexamplesontheright.

    1Donotusecontractions aOfcourse,weallknowwhatbignatureloverscarmanufacturesare.2Avoidusingphrasalverbs bNobodywantswar,dothey?3Avoidusingidioms cItisntonlyth...