lesson 47 reducing the risk of cardiovascular the risk of cardiovascular diseases michael...
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Reducing the Risk ofCardiovascularDiseases
I will choose behaviors to reduce my risk ofcardiovascular diseases.
Adisease of the heart and blood vessels is a .In this lesson you will learn about the risk factors you can and cannot control. cardiovascular diseaseWhat Youll Learn1. Identify characteristics of
different cardiovasculardiseases. (p. 515)
2. Identify cardiovascular diseaserisk factors that cannot becontrolled. (p. 518)
3. Identify cardiovascular riskfactors that can be controlled.(p. 518)
4. Describe medical diagnosesand treatments for heartdisease. (p. 520)
Why Its ImportantHeart disease, a type ofcardiovascular disease, is theleading cause of death in theUnited States. You can take stepsto reduce your risk of developingheart disease. This lesson willdescribe what you can do to keepyour heart healthy.
Key Terms cardiovascular disease angina pectoris plaque arteriosclerosis arrhythmia pacemaker stroke aneurysm prehypertension antihypertensives
Writing About Reducing Risk Suppose that since several membersof your family suffer from cardiovascular diseases, you know that youhave a higher risk of developing a cardiovascular disease. What can youdo to lower your risk? After reading about reducing your risk on page518, make a list in your health journal of ways you can reduce your riskof developing cardiovascular disease.
514 UNIT 8 Communicable and Chronic Diseases
There are many different kinds of cardiovascular diseases.
They have signs and symptoms that are unique to each.
In this section you will learn about the characteristics of
eight different kinds of cardiovascular diseases.
Angina pectoris Chest pain thatresults from narrowed coronaryarteries is (an JYnuhPEK tuh ruhs). The pain occursbecause the heart is not getting anadequate amount of oxygen. Suddenphysical exertion, vigorous exercise,or excessive stress can cause anginapectoris in people with coronary heartdisease. Many people with coronaryheart disease take nitroglycerin pillsto relieve chest pains. Nitroglycerinis a drug that widens the coronaryarteries, allowing more oxygen to getto the cardiac muscle. A heart attackmay occur if the narrowing thatcauses angina pectoris is very severe.
Congestive heart failure A conditionthat occurs when the hearts pumpingability is below normal capacity andfluid accumulates in the lungs andother areas of the body is congestiveheart failure. Causes of congestiveheart failure are heart attack, athero-sclerosis, birth defects, high bloodpressure, and rheumatic fever. Drugsthat improve the hearts pumpingability and get rid of excess fluids areused to treat congestive heart failure.Reducing the amount of sodium inthe diet is helpful.
Coronary heart disease A disease inwhich the coronary arteries are nar-rowed or blocked is coronary heartdisease (CHD). A coronary arteryis a blood vessel that carries blood tothe heart muscles. The coronaryarteries encircle the heart and con-tinuously nourish it with blood.Plaque buildup in the coronary arter-ies causes coronary heart disease,which can cause a heart attack.
is hardened deposits of fatand other materials in the walls ofarteries throughout the body.
LESSON 47 Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases 515
What to Know AboutCardiovascular Diseases
Fish Oils Omega-3fatty acids, found infish oils, are good forthe heart. Studies are underway todetermine their effect on the health of the brain.
This artery contains plaque buildup.
Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosisA term used to describe hardeningand thickening of the arteries is
(ahr tee ree ohskluh ROH sis). Arteriosclerosistends to occur naturally as peopleage. Atherosclerosis is a disease inwhich fat deposits collect on arterywalls. The fatty deposits may hardenand form plaque. Medical scientistsbelieve that high blood cholesterollevels, a high-fat diet, high bloodpressure, and smoking can causeinjury to the lining of arteries andcontribute to plaque buildup. Thebuildup of plaque in artery walls doesnot develop suddenly later in life, butmay begin as early as age two. Botharteriosclerosis and atherosclerosisare types of coronary heart disease.
Heart rhythm abnormalities Theheart must beat in rhythm to effec-tively pump blood throughout thebody. A heart condition in which theheart may beat very slowly or veryfast for no obvious reason is
(ay RIHTH mee uh).The heart may skip beats or beatirregularly. Various drugs are avail-able to treat arrhythmia. People whodo not improve after taking drugs mayneed to have surgery to implant apacemaker. A is a devicethat is implanted in the heart to stim-ulate normal heart contractions.
Rheumatic fever An autoimmuneaction in the heart that can causefever, weakness, and damage to thevalves in the heart is
The symptoms of rheumaticfever are painful, swollen joints, andskin rashes. Rheumatic fever is mostcommon in children and teens.Prevention of rheumatic feverinvolves getting prompt treatment forstrep throat. Permanent heart dam-age that results from rheumatic feveris called rheumatic heart disease.
Stroke A condition caused by ablocked or broken blood vessel in thebrain is a or cerebrovascu-lar (suh ree broh VAS kyuh luhr)accident. Brain cells in the area ofthe blocked or broken blood vesselare deprived of the oxygen they need.The brain cells die within minutesand the affected area of the brain andthe parts of the body controlled bythose brain cells cannot function.One of the most common causes of astroke is a blood clot in an artery inthe brain. Strokes also can be causedif an aneurysm in the brain bursts.An (AN yuh rih zuhm) isa weakened area of a blood vessel.
516 UNIT 8 Communicable and Chronic Diseases(t)ISM/Phototake, (b)Michael Keller/CORBIS
Stroke Stroke is thethird leading causeof death in the
A pacemaker isused to treat
A physician candetermine if a
persons heartbeatis normal.
Strokes also can be caused by a headinjury. A stroke may result in paraly-sis, disability, or death. High bloodpressure, cigarette smoking, highblood cholesterol, and having heartdisease or diabetes are major riskfactors for having a stroke.
Heart attack The death of cardiacmuscle caused by a lack of blood flowto the heart is a heart attack. Themedical term for heart attack ismyocardial infarction (my uh KAR dee uhlin FARK shun) (MI). A coro-nary artery that is narrowed byplaque might become clogged by ablood clot, preventing blood flow to the heart muscle. A heart attack mayresult in disability or death. The
warning signs includeuncomfortable pressureor pain in the center ofthe chest that lasts formore than a few minutes;pain that spreads to theshoulders, neck, jaw, back,or stomach; lightheadedness;fainting; sweating; nausea; and short-ness of breath.
Most heart attacks start with mildpain or discomfort and progress slowly.Others are sudden and intense. TheAmerican Heart Association (AHA)warns that not all of these signs occurin every heart attack. The AHAadvises that a person should get med-ical help immediately when some ofthese symptoms occur.
LESSON 47 Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases 517Tim Fuller
One of the best things you can do to keep your heart healthy is to keep moving. Regular moderate to vigorousexercise strengthens your heart. It also helps control blood cholesterol and blood pressure and reduces stress.Remember that exercise that is good for your heart is aerobic. It makes your muscles useoxygen and causes your heart to pump harder to deliver oxygen to the muscles.Recognize that aerobic exercise is vigorous, repetitive, and sustainedlasting 20 minutes or more at a time. Here aresome tips to help you fit more heart-healthy exercise intoyour weekly routine.
Using Goal-Setting and Decision-Making Skills: Being Heart Healthy
Keep a daily log of youraerobic activities.
1 Write yourhealth goal.For one week,keep a daily chart ofyour aerobic activitiesand the number ofminutes spent on eachone. Try to include avariety of aerobicexercises.
2Make an action
meet your health goal.
Review your chart. Rate
your level of aerobic activity
as low, medium, or high. A
high level is three or more
sessions per week of mod-
erate to vigorous exertion
lasting 20 minutes or
more at a time.
5Build a supp
system. Have fun
Choose activities that you
will enjoy. This will make
it easier for exercise to
become a habit.
3 Identifyobstacles toyour plan. Ifyour rating is low ormedium, set one ormore goals forincreasing your level ofaerobic activity. Forexample, if you spend anhour or more each dayplaying video games, youcould replace 20 minutesof that time with anaerobic activity.
a timeline to a
your health go
al and keep a
chart or diary
in which you
s towards your
goal. As you se
t your goals, co
your schedule. D
o you prefer to
in the morning o
r evening? How
make more time
for exercise? Th
about location. W
ill you exercise
at school, or som
ewhere else? Do
g alone or with
6 Revise your action plan or timelineif necessary and reward yourselfwhen you reach your health goal.Lastly, be realistic. If you havent exercisedmuch, start with