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    PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND

    DEVELOPMENT

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    GROWTH

    used to denote a

    quantitative change

    an increase in physical

    appearance.

    Increase in physical size

    and weight of the body

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    Growth can be measured in terms

    of:

    Nutritional anthropometry (Weight, Height,

    Head Circumference, Chest Circumference)

    Assessment of tissue growth (muscle mass,

    skin fold thickness)

    Bone age (Radiological Assessment of

    Epiphysis)

    Dental Age

    Biochemical and Histological Means

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    PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH ANDDEVELOPMENT

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 1:

    GROWTH AND

    DEVELOPMENT ARECONTINUOUSPROCESSES FROM

    CONCEPTION UNTILDEATH

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 2:

    GROWTH AND

    DEVELOPMENTPROCEED IN AN

    ORDERLYSEQUENCE

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    Example:

    Growth in height occurs in only one sequence

    from smaller to larger

    Development proceeds in predictable order

    Crawl creep walk

    Babbles words sentences

    Scribble write

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 3:

    DIFFERENT

    CHILDREN PASSTHROUGH THEPREDICTABLE STAGES

    AT DIFFERENT RATES

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    All stages of development have a range oftime rather than a certain point at which they

    are usually accomplished.

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 4:

    ALL BODY SYSTEMS

    DO NOT DEVELOP ATTHE SAME RATE

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    Certain body tissues mature more rapidly than

    others

    Early childhood:

    rapid growth of neurologic tissue

    Rapid growth of lymphoid tissues

    Puberty: rapid growth during puberty

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 5:

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    Midline to peripheral development

    Example:

    Newborn: little use of the arms or hands

    34 mos: enough arm control to support the

    upper body weight on the forearms; can scoop up

    objects

    10 mos: can coordinate arm and thumb and indexfingerspincerlike grasp; child is able to pick

    small objects

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    Development proceeds from head to tail

    (head to lower extremities)

    Newborn: lift head when in prone position

    2 mos: lift head and chest off the bed

    4 mos: lift head, chest, and part of the abdomen

    5 mos: infant can turn over

    9 mos: control the legs; crawl

    1 year: stand and walk

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 7:

    DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDSFROM GROSS TO REFINED

    SKILLS

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    Parallels proximal to distal development

    As the child is able to control distal body parts,

    he or she is able to perform fine motor skills

    A baby can see large objects first before he

    sees small ones.

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 8:

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    A child cannot learn tasks until his or her

    nervous system is mature enough to allow

    that particular learning, however, children

    who are not given the opportunity to learndevelopmental tasks at the appropriate or

    target times for that task may have more

    difficulty than the usual child learning the tasklater on.

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 9:

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    Neonatal reflexes are replaced by purposeful

    movements

    Examples:

    Infant cannot grasp with skill until the grasp reflex

    has faded

    Infant cannot stand steadily until the walking

    reflex has faded

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    PRINCIPLE NUMBER 10:

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    Infants practice over and over taking a

    first step before they accomplish thissecurely.

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    WHY IS THERE A

    NEED TOMONITOR

    GROWTH AND

    DEVELOPMENT?

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    TO FIND/DISCOVER DEVIATIONS AS

    SOON AS POSSIBLE AND TO BRINGPOSSIBLE REMEDIES

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    FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTHAND DEVELOPMENT

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    2 MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING

    GRWOTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    1.GENETIC INHERITANCE

    2.

    ENVIRONMENTAL

    INFLUENCES

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    GENETIC INHERITANCE

    1. gender

    2. health

    3. Intelligence

    4. temperament

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    Gender

    Certain gender-related characteristicsinflucence normal growth and development

    Example

    on the average, girls are born lighter and shorterthan boys.

    Boys tend to keep this height and weight

    advantage until puberty, at which time girls surge

    ahead because they begin their puberty growth

    spurt 6 months to one year earlier than boys.

    By the end of puberty, boys again tend to be taller

    and heavier than girls.

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    Health

    A child who inherits a genetically transmitted

    disease may not grow as rapidly or develop as

    fully as the healthy child, depending on the

    type of illness and the therapy or careavailable for the disease.

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    Intelligence

    Children with high intelligence do not

    generally grow faster than other children, but

    they tend to advance faster in skills.

    Occasionally, a child of high intelligence will

    fall behind in physical skills because he or she

    spends time with books or mental games

    rather than with games that develop motorskills and so does not receive practice in these

    areas.

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    Temperament:

    The usual pattern of an individual or an

    individuals characteristic manner of thinking,

    behaving, or reacting to stimuli is a genetic

    factor that also influences growth anddevelopment.

    Some children adapt quickly to new situations

    and others adapt slowly, and some reactintensely and some passively.

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    Reaction Patterns (characteristics

    of temperament)

    A. LEVEL OF ACTIVITY

    Level of activity among children differs widely

    B. RHYTHMICITY

    A child who has rhythmicity manifests a regular

    rhythm in physiologic functions

    C. APPROACH

    Refers to a childs response on initial contact with

    a new stimulus

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    D. ADAPTIBILITY

    The ability to change ones reaction to stimuli

    over time

    E. INTENSITY OF REACTION

    how intense is the reaction of the child to a

    situation

    F. DISTRACTIBILITY Shifting of attention to a new situation

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    G. ATTENTION SPAN AND PERSISTENCE

    Attention span: ability to remain interested ina

    project or activity.

    Varies among infants

    Degree of persistence also varies

    H. THRESHOLD OF RESPONSE

    The intensity level of stimulation that is

    necessary to evoke action

    I. MOOD QUALITY

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    CATEGORIES OF TEMPERAMENT

    A. EASY CHILD

    Easy to care for

    Have predictable rhythmicity, approach and

    adapt to a new situation readily, have a mild tomoderate intensity of reaction, and have an

    overall positive mood quality.

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    B. DIFFICULT CHILD

    Irregular in habits, have a negative mood quality,

    withdraw rather than approach new situations

    C. SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILD

    Fairly inactive

    Respond only mildly and adapt slowly to new

    situations, and have a general negative mood

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    ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

    1. Socioeconomic level

    2. Parent-Child relationship

    3. Ordinal Position in the family

    4. Health

    5. Nutrition

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    Socioeconomic Level

    Children born in families with low

    socioeconomic levels may not receive

    adequate health supervision or good nutrition

    which are important in their normal growthand development.

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    Parent-child Relationship

    Children who are loved thrive better than

    those who are not.

    Quality is better than quantity

    Loss of a parent-child relationship of

    whatever cause can interfere with the childs

    desire to eat, improve and advance.

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    Ordinal Position in the Family

    An only child or the oldest child generally

    excels in language development because

    conversations are mainly with adults but may

    not excel in other skills such as toilet trainingat an early age

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    Health

    Diseases that come from environmental

    sources can have a strong influence on growth

    and development as genetically inherited

    diseases.

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    Developmental Task

    A skill or a growth responsibility arising at a

    particular time in an individuals life

    Achievement will provide a foundation for theaccomplishment of future tasks

    Th M j D l t l T k

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    The Major Developmental Tasks

    for Childhood

    1. Infancy and early childhood (birth to 6 years)

    a) Learning to walk.

    b) Learning to take solid foods.

    c) Learning to talk.

    d) Learning to control the elimination of body wastes

    e) Learning sex differences and sexual modesty.

    f) Achieving physiological stability.

    g) Forming simple concepts of physical reality

    h) Learning to relate oneself emotionally to parents,

    siblings and other people

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    2. Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years)

    a) Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games

    b) Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as agrowing organism.

    c) Learning to get along with age mates.

    d) Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine rolee) Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing and

    calculating

    f) Developing concepts necessary for everyday living

    g) Developing conscience, morality and a scale of values.

    h) Achieving personal independence

    i) Developing attitudes towards social groups /

    institutions

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    Developmental Periods

    STAGE AGE PERIOD

    Prenatal Period Conception -280 days

    Infancy Birth -10-14 daysBabyhood 2 wks2 yrs

    Childhood 2 yrs - puberty

    Adolescence 11 -21 yrs