lecture 22 –new hw assignment –anaerobic metabolism (continued) –other sugars...
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- Lecture 22 New HW assignment Anaerobic metabolism (continued) Other sugars Gluconeogenesis Regulation
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- Alcoholic fermentation (yeast don't have Lactate DH) 2. alchohol dehydrogenase C - O - C=OC=O CH 3 O Pyruvate H-C-O-H-C-O- H H NADH, H + NAD + 1. Pyruvate decarboxylase (TPP) Mg 2+, thiamine pyrophosphate CO 2 CH 3 H-C=OH-C=O Acetaldehyde Ethanol CH 3
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- Figure 17-26Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Page 604 Involved in both oxidative and non-oxidative decarboxylation as a carrier of "active" aldehydes.
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- Mechanism of Pyruvate Decarboxylase using TPP 1.Nucleophilic attack by the dipolar cation (ylid) form of TPP on the carbonyl carbon of pyruvate to form a covalent adduct. 2.Loss of carbon dioxide to generate the carbanion adduct in which the thiazolium ring of TPP acts as an electron sink. 3.Protonation of the carbanion 4.Elimination of the TPP ylid to form acetaldehyde and regenerate the active enzyme.
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- Page 605
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- Figure 17-25The two reactions of alcoholic fermentation. Page 604
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- Figure 17-30The reaction mechanism of alcohol dehydrogenase involves direct hydride transfer of the pro-R hydrogen of NADH to the re face of acetaldehyde. Page 606
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- Alcoholic fermentation 2ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose 2 Ethanol + 2 CO 2 Pyruvate decarboxylase is present in brewer's yeast but absent in muscle / lactic acid bacteria
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- Other types of fermentations also exist CoASH pyruvate acetyl-CoA + acetyl-P acetate acetaldehyde ethanol Mixed acid: (2 lactate + acetate + ethanol) so, in addition to lactate production NADH, H + NAD + ADP ATP NADH, H + NAD + lactate
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- Butanediol fermentation C - O - C=OC=O CH 3 O 2 Pyruvate NADH, H + NAD + CO 2 Acetolactic acid C - O - C-C-O-C-C-O- CH 3 H O O CO 2 C=OC=O CH 3 HC - OH Acetoin CH 3 HC - OH 2,3-butanediol
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- Other fermentations (Clostridium) CoA H2H2 CH 3 -C-COOH CO 2 O CH 3 -C-CoA O Acetyl-CoA CoA CH 3 -C-CH 2 -C-CoA O O CoA Acetic acid CO 2 CoA CH 3 -C-CH 3 O acetone CH 3 -C-CH 3 OH isopropanol NADH
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- Other fermentations (Clostridium) H2OH2O NADH NAD CH 3 -C-CH 2 -C-CoA O O CH 3 -CH=CH-C-CoA O CH 3 -CH 2 CH 2 -C-CoA O CH 3 -CH 2 CH 2 -C-OH O H2OH2O 2 NADH 2 NAD CH 3 -CH 2 CH 2 -CH 2 -OH butanol butyric acid
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- What about other sugars? Fructose - fruits, table sugar (sucrose). Galactose - hydrolysis of lactose (milk sugar) Mannose - from the digestion of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. All converted to glycolytic intermediates.
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- Fructose metabolism Two pathways: muscle and liver In muscle, hexokinase also phosphorylates fructose producing F6P. Liver uses glucokinase (low levels of hexokinase) to phosphorylate glucose, so for fructose it uses a different enzyme set Fructokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose by ATP at C1 to form fructose-1-phosphate. Type B aldolase (fructose-1-phosphate aldolase) found in liver cleaves F1P to DHAP and glyceraldehyde. Glyceraldehyde kinase converts glyceraldehyde to GAP.
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- Fructose metabolism Glyceraldehyde can also be converted to glycerol by alcohol dehydrogenase. Glycerol is phosphorylated by glycerol kinase to form glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate is oxidized to DHAP by glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. DHAP is converted to GAP by TIM
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- Page 619
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- Figure 8.16c Important disaccharides formed by linking monosaccharides with O-glycosidic bonds. Lactose, milk sugar.
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- Galactose metabolism Galactose is half the sugar in lactose. Galactose and glucose are epimers (differ at C4) Involves epimerization reaction after the conversion of galactose to the uridine diphosphate (UDP) derivative. 1.Galactose is phosphorylated at C1 by ATP (galactokinase) 2.Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase transfers UDP-glucoses uridylyl group to galactose-1- phosphate to make glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) and UDP-galactose. 3.UDP-galactose-4-epimerase converts UDP-galactose back to UDP glucose. 4.G1P is converted to G6P by phosphoglucomutase.
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- Page 621
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- Mannose metabolism Mannose is found in glycoproteins Epimer of glucose at the C2 position Converted to F6P by two-step pathway 1.Hexokinase converts mannose to mannose-6- phosphate 2.Phosphomannose isomerase converts the aldose to ketose F6P. (the mechanism is similar to phosphoglucose isomerase with an enediolate intermediate).
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- Figure 17-37Metabolism of mannose. Page 621
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- Entner-Doudoroff pathway Although glycolysis is nearly universal, some bacteria use an alternate route called the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Final product is ethanol.
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- Figure 17-38EntnerDoudoroff pathway for glucose breakdown. Page 625
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- Sugar catabolic pathways Glycolysis Lactate fermentation Alcohol fermentation Fructose metabolism Galactose metabolism Mannose metabolism Entner-Doudoroff pathway
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- Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis-production of glucose under starvation conditions since some cells (brain and red blood cells) can only use glucose as a carbon source. Noncarbohydrate precursors (lactate, pyruvate, citric acid cycle intermediates, and carbon skeletons of most amino acids) can be converted to glucose. Must go through oxaloacetate (OAA) first. Lysine and leucine cannot be converted to glucose (degrade to acetyl-CoA) Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose precursors in animals-degraded completely to acetyl-CoA Plants can convert fatty acids to glucose with the glyoxylate cycle. Glycerol can be converted to to glucose via a DHAP intermediate
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- 3 steps (1, 3, 10) are considered irreversible due to energetics and inhibitors preventing the back reaction. Purpose of gluconeogenesis is to supply free glucose for use by brain or storage during energy excess. Generally done in the liver. -4 kcal -3.4 kcal +5.7 kcal +0.4 kcal +1.5 kcal -4.5 kcal +1.06 kcal +0.4 kcal -7.5 kcal
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- Gluconeogenesis (new glucose formation) Mainly occurs in the liver. Shares 7 reversible steps with glycolysis-but must have a mechanism around the irreversible steps (all G must be negative). Step 1 PEP Pyruvate G= -7.5 ADP ATP Pyruvate kinase Overcome by circuitous route PEP Pyruvate G= +0.2 CO 2 ATP biotin ADP Pyruvate carboxylase GTP GDP PEP carboxykinase OAA CO 2
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- Pyruvate is converted to OAA before PEP Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes the ATP driven formation of oxaloacetate from pyruvate and bicarbonate. PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) converts oxaloacetate to PEP in a reaction that uses GTP as a phosphorylating agent.
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- Pyruvate carboxylase Page 602 Has a biotin prosthetic group Biotin enzymes often used for carboxylations with bicarbonate by forming a carboxyl substituent at its ureido group. Biotin is an essential human nutrient. Binds tightly to avidin and streptavidin (can be used as a linking agent in biotechnological applications b/c of high affinity).
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- Figure 23-3aBiotin and carboxybiotinylenzyme. (a) Biotin consists of an imidazoline ring that is cis-fused to a tetrahydrothiophene ring bearing a valerate side chain. Page 845
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- Figure 23-3bBiotin and carboxybiotinylenzyme. (b) In carboxybiotinylenzyme, N1 of the biotin ureido group is the carboxylation site. Page 845 Long flexible chain Enzyme
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- Figure 23-4Two-phase reaction mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase. Page 846
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- Figure 23-4 (continued)Two-phase reaction mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase. Phase II Page 846
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- Pyruvate carboxylase Regulated by acetyl-CoA. (allosteric activator) Inactive without bound acetyl-CoA. Inhibition of the citric acid cycle by high levels of ATP and NADH causes oxaloacetate to undergo gluconeogenesis. PEP Pyruvate G= +0.2 CO 2 ATP biotin ADP Pyruvate carboxylase GTP GDP PEP carboxykinase OAA CO 2
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- PEP Carboxykinase Page 602 Monomeric 608 aa enzyme. Catalyzes the GTP driven decarboxylation of OAA to PEP forming GDP PEPCK cellular location varies with species In mouse and rat liver it is in the cytosol In pigeon and rabbit liver it is mitochondrial In humans and guinea pigs it is in both.
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- Figure 23-5The PEPCK mechanism. Page 847 OAA
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- Gluconeogenesis requires transport between the mitochondria and cytosol Enzymes for converting PEP to glucose are in the cytosol. Intermediates need to cross barriers in order for gluconeogenesis. OAA must leave the mitochondria for conversion to PEP or PEP formed in the mitochondria must go to the cytosol. PEP tranported across the membrane by specific proteins. Oxaloacetate has no specific transport system. OAA must be convertted to either aspartate or malate
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- Gluconeogenesis requires transport between the mitochondria and cytosol Page 602 The difference between the 2 routes fo
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