Latin American Experience with Enhancing Quality and Measuring Quality South Asia Regional Conference on Education Quality New Delhi, India October 24-26,

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<ul><li><p>Latin American Experience with Enhancing Quality and Measuring QualitySouth Asia Regional Conference on Education QualityNew Delhi, IndiaOctober 24-26, 2007 </p><p>Eduardo VelezSector Manager for EducationHuman Development SectorLatin America and the Caribbean</p></li><li><p>Current Situation in Latin AmericaAssessment Systems- Most countries have at least an incipient national assessment system based on standardized student achievement test, periodically applied to samples or all students of certain key grades in core academic subjects.- Some countries have sub-national assessments systemsMost have participated in one or more international text-A few countries and sub-national entities have been producing school- and system-report cards</p></li><li><p>Report CardsVarious modelsDifferent variablesDifferent processesAll lead to focusing on outcomes, some give more space for consideration of processesAll promote improvement and accountability among various stakeholders-</p></li><li><p>Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found? Lower than expectedHuge differences in averages between rural and urban population, public and private schools, poor and non-poor, indigenous and non-indigenous populationsIncreasingly small, if any, differences between girls and boys.Slow change in outcomes</p></li><li><p>Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found? Positive resultsThe following are important inputs: school climate, high expectations, principals leadership and permanence, homework, peer effects, educational materials, teachers satisfaction and knowledge of subject matter, active pedagogy, parents SES and participation, use of classroom assessment as a pedagogical tool, Time on homework, interest in subject, student perception of relationship with teacher, understanding that science &amp; math associated w/ better job opportunities &amp; future financial security, Mothers education, home educational resources, assessment systems, school autonomy (process and human resources), less influence from unions, .. just like everywhere else!!!!!!!!!!!!!!</p></li><li><p>Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found? Negative resultsThe following characteristics have a negative impact: -Memorization, rote learning-Mothers employment-Number of siblings-High student-teacher ratio-Frontal teaching method-Technology has mixed results</p></li><li><p>Assessment Systems &amp; Report Cards. Big challenge. </p><p>Quality of Education is the challenge</p><p>It should take 2 to 3 (at very most) grades to learn to read. If it is taking 4 to 6, are systems working at about 50% effectiveness?Poorest 53 countries spend $16 billion on primary education, are they wasting $8 billion of it?</p></li><li><p>International Comparisons</p></li><li><p>PISA 2000: Math Scores &amp; DispersionMeanScoreDispersion200400600280240340380420</p></li><li><p>PISA 2003: Math Scores &amp; Dispersion</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (1)Participation, consensus building and face to face discussion with teachers, principals, and supervisors (sample, all schools get results, all teachers can apply the test to their students, and can compare with national results)</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (2)In-service teacher training as the first consequence of the assessment (starting with assessments results, voluntary and collective --involves the teacher team of a school--, exchange of experience with other teams, all year roundonce a fortnight; participants receive 20% of salary; schools in poor areas are priority; focus on how to teach; and emphasis on practical activities in the classroom)</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (3)Evidence on the impact-70% of teachers support national assessment-70.2% read MOEs publications-55% changed teaching and evaluating practices-78% apply school based assessmentWhen MOE appeared I had a brick in each hand.. Little by little they convinced us.. Now it is a valuable experience. We have changed our practice</p></li><li><p>EVOLUTION OF THE RESULTS BY SOCIAL CONTEXTLanguage, percentage of students achieving an acceptable level in the test /Primary 6th grade Poor Rich </p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (1)Increase AutonomyTo improve quality, efforts are needed to move decision-making to the school level, thus increasing school autonomyIncreasing school autonomy can compensate disadvantaged schoolsAutonomy can help raise the schooling outcomes of indigenous peoplesSchool autonomy reinforces the role of homework, learning styles and future value of educationWith more autonomy, schools could determine the appropriate mix of technology for their students</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (2)Improve AccountabilityAccountability mechanisms can improve school qualityAccountability mechanisms that put people at the center of service provision can go a long way in making services work and improving outcomesFlexible and wide-ranging accountability mechanisms could encompass various types of servicesTo improve quality, efforts are needed to move decision-making to the school level, thus increasing school autonomy</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (3)Continue learning from the assessmentAssessment testing can be used to inform policy decisions. Analysis of assessments can foster public and civil society involvement in education reform. However, governments must be proactive in encouraging public debate using assessment results. Expand coverage of the national assessments. National and international assessments could be used to inform school reform process </p></li><li><p>PISA 2003: Mathematics</p></li><li><p>Assessment and AccountabilityUsing Early Grade Reading (EGR)Some start to use it to monitor reading but also to increase involvement of parents and other stakeholders (an accountability mechanism). It is not an alternative to assessment systems. Lets see some pros and cons.</p></li><li><p>Math and literacy among 15-year-olds, or around grade 9Early-grade reading Closer to labor market in time Can measure skills closer to real competencies Maybe more meaningful to moneyed stakeholders (MinFin, cabinet)</p><p>Con: a score on a test is not exactly a standard or goal, at least not until the test has gained very wide currency Measures at time when can remediate More quickly remediable if start now Easier for parents to use for localized accountability Easier to create social movement around it Probably easier to build into teaching strategies</p></li><li><p>Where are the countries?Chile, Grade 1: We expect children to read fluently and with comprehension. This means that they should be able to: read, fast enough not to impede comprehension, stories of about 200 words; identify the type of text read; comprehend literal meaning; and make simple inferences. (Paraphrase.)This is measurable, or can lead to something measurablePeru, Haiti, Honduras</p></li><li><p>Are there any results (from EGR)?To early to say. But in Peru there is some evidence that introducing EGR at the school level has a significant return. In six schools in five municipalities in Peru, after six months of introducing EGR the changes were on average 80% and the worst off the school (in terms of education quality) the biggest the impact.Also in Peru the Government decided to use the results of an assessment system to evaluate its education policy starting with a baseline at the beginning of the Administration.</p></li><li><p>Some lessons for Assessment Policy</p><p>Assessment Unit must be committed with producing materials useful for teachers and with dissemination and use of results. (School reports with useful information about their performance and activities) Technical legitimacy of tests and frameworks is crucial Timely and accurate data to inform policymaking Unit must be autonomous from political interests Importance of detailed planning of actions and coherent implementation</p></li><li><p>Some lessons for Assessment Policy </p><p> You need an assessment strategy, not just to administrate tests policymakers use the results of evaluation of existing interventions to inform design and implementation of policies A "teacher-friendly" approach to assessment facilitates its use by teachers Articulate dissemination of results with an effective in-service training program Teachers need space and time to meet, study, discuss, try new things</p></li><li><p>Some lessons for Assessment Policy </p><p> Autonomy with support. More autonomous schools can implement appropriate education policies Accountability. A more accountable system will encourage more active participation by parents, teachers, and others, which is key to improving learning outcomes Assessment. A system that is based in constant assessment and participation in international benchmarking exercises will improve cost-effectiveness</p></li></ul>


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