late bronze age religion

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Late Bronze Age Religion. ?. Who can help? What evidence is there? What are the obstacles?. Accessing Prehistoric Religion. Anthropologists Homer Scholars Philologists Archaeologists. Roots of Mycenaean Religion?. Mesopotamian? Near Eastern? Minoan? Cycladic?. Bronze Age Mediterranean. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Late Bronze Age Religion

  • Accessing Prehistoric Religion?Who can help?

    What evidence is there?

    What are the obstacles?

  • AnthropologistsHomer ScholarsPhilologistsArchaeologists

  • Roots of Mycenaean Religion?Mesopotamian?Near Eastern?Minoan?Cycladic?

  • Bronze Age MediterraneanNear East Levant & AnatoliaCreteCycladesCyprusMainland Greece

  • Minoan ReligionHorns of ConsecrationPeak SanctuariesCave Tree & Pillar/Stone CultsBull

  • Peak SanctuaryHorns of ConsecrationPillar or AltarAt or near peak of mountains or hills

  • Mycenae: Mylonas Cult Center

  • House of the IdolsLHIIIB ArchitectureTemple (room 18)Storeroom (room 19) upstairsTriangular alcoveEntrance through anteroomCentral Platform (hearth?)Benches of varied heights

  • The Temple & StoreroomSteps to storeroomCentral PlatformBenches: for offerings?platforms for cult statues?

  • End of DaysStoreroom Sealed after earthquakeBroken figures kept in sealed roomOnly 1 idol in use standing in anteroom at time of final fiery destruction of cult center (LHIIIB2)Cult Center not rebuilt or reused in LHIIIC, Submycenaean or Protogeometric Periods

  • Room with the FrescoLHIIIB1 construction dateFresco on East WallAltar/Platform in front of FrescoCentral HearthLow Bench on South WallShrine added on West side: Room with the Ivories

  • Fresco RoomHearthBenchAltarShrine EntranceRich Finds of Clay, Ivory, Lead, Stone, and Faience (self-glazing sand/quartz paste)

  • The FindsIvory Lion for ornate chair arm?Ivory Head to fit on wooden body/frame?Scarab of Queen Tiye, wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (100 years older than shrine)

  • Lower Register: Woman with Ears of Grain

  • Upper Register: Women with Sword & Staff

  • Hierarchy of Position?

  • Goddess or Priestess?Linear B evidence?Si-to-po-ti-ni-jaWheat Lady I-je-re-jaPriestess?

  • What or Who do the Idols Represent?Snakes in Minoan Religion but not coiled clay onesSmaller, decorated figures as deities?

  • Matriarchal or Patriarchal Religion?Anthropomorphic (Gunaikomorphic)Piriform JarAlcove in House of Idols

  • Goddess of Room of the Ivories?Cp. Psi figurine?

  • Goddess of Room with Idols?Holding BreastsTau figurine?

  • Votaries & Worshippers?Holding the Labrys (double-headed axe)?

  • Tiryns ShrineBuilt against inside of fortification wall of Lower CitadelMegaron PlanCentral Hearth, Vestibule & Main RoomBench against Fortification Wall in Main RoomSeveral LHIIIC phases

  • Shrine Sites?MycenaeTirynsTsoungizaMideaAyia IriniPhilakopi

  • Shrines at Midea & Tsoungiza?

  • The IslandsPhylakopi on Melos

    Ayia Irini on Kea

  • Lady of PhylakopiPhylakopi Shrines from LHIIIA-CNW Altar of West Shrine: Male Figures!Large Bull FiguresLHIIIA2-LHIIIC

  • Phylakopi Bull FiguresCp. Dimini (N. Greece) & Mitrou (C. Greece)

  • Ayia IriniInitially Minoan, then MycenaeanCult Center from MC (18thC) to Hellenistic Period (3rdC B.C.)!

  • Ayia Irini50 Female LHIIIA-B TC Statues

  • Linear-B God Names We RecognizeA-RE Ares?E-NU-WA-RI-JO Enyalios (warlike or battle, later epithet for Ares)PA-JA-WO-NE Paiawon ("Paian", later epithet for Apollo)PO-SE-DA-O-NE Poseidon (main god at Pylos)E-NE-SI-DA-O-NE Enosidas ("Enosigaios" or "Earthshaker")DI-WO Zeus

  • Unknown Deities?PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia ("mistress")DA-PU-RI-TO-JO PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia of the LabyrinthA-TA-NA PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia (from?) Atana (= "Athena"?)DI-WI-JA Diwia (female counterpart of Zeus)PO-SI-DA-E-JA Posidaieia (female counterpart of Poseidon)PA-KI-JA-NI-JA Sphagianeia?? I-QE-JA Hippeia ("of horses"?)A-SI-WI-JA Aswia NE-WO-PE-O ?U-PO-JO ?

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