late bronze age religion
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DESCRIPTIONLate Bronze Age Religion. ?. Who can help? What evidence is there? What are the obstacles?. Accessing Prehistoric Religion. Anthropologists Homer Scholars Philologists Archaeologists. Roots of Mycenaean Religion?. Mesopotamian? Near Eastern? Minoan? Cycladic?. Bronze Age Mediterranean. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Late Bronze Age Religion
Accessing Prehistoric Religion?Who can help?
What evidence is there?
What are the obstacles?
Roots of Mycenaean Religion?Mesopotamian?Near Eastern?Minoan?Cycladic?
Bronze Age MediterraneanNear East Levant & AnatoliaCreteCycladesCyprusMainland Greece
Minoan ReligionHorns of ConsecrationPeak SanctuariesCave Tree & Pillar/Stone CultsBull
Peak SanctuaryHorns of ConsecrationPillar or AltarAt or near peak of mountains or hills
Mycenae: Mylonas Cult Center
House of the IdolsLHIIIB ArchitectureTemple (room 18)Storeroom (room 19) upstairsTriangular alcoveEntrance through anteroomCentral Platform (hearth?)Benches of varied heights
The Temple & StoreroomSteps to storeroomCentral PlatformBenches: for offerings?platforms for cult statues?
End of DaysStoreroom Sealed after earthquakeBroken figures kept in sealed roomOnly 1 idol in use standing in anteroom at time of final fiery destruction of cult center (LHIIIB2)Cult Center not rebuilt or reused in LHIIIC, Submycenaean or Protogeometric Periods
Room with the FrescoLHIIIB1 construction dateFresco on East WallAltar/Platform in front of FrescoCentral HearthLow Bench on South WallShrine added on West side: Room with the Ivories
Fresco RoomHearthBenchAltarShrine EntranceRich Finds of Clay, Ivory, Lead, Stone, and Faience (self-glazing sand/quartz paste)
The FindsIvory Lion for ornate chair arm?Ivory Head to fit on wooden body/frame?Scarab of Queen Tiye, wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (100 years older than shrine)
Lower Register: Woman with Ears of Grain
Upper Register: Women with Sword & Staff
Hierarchy of Position?
Goddess or Priestess?Linear B evidence?Si-to-po-ti-ni-jaWheat Lady I-je-re-jaPriestess?
What or Who do the Idols Represent?Snakes in Minoan Religion but not coiled clay onesSmaller, decorated figures as deities?
Matriarchal or Patriarchal Religion?Anthropomorphic (Gunaikomorphic)Piriform JarAlcove in House of Idols
Goddess of Room of the Ivories?Cp. Psi figurine?
Goddess of Room with Idols?Holding BreastsTau figurine?
Votaries & Worshippers?Holding the Labrys (double-headed axe)?
Tiryns ShrineBuilt against inside of fortification wall of Lower CitadelMegaron PlanCentral Hearth, Vestibule & Main RoomBench against Fortification Wall in Main RoomSeveral LHIIIC phases
Shrine Sites?MycenaeTirynsTsoungizaMideaAyia IriniPhilakopi
Shrines at Midea & Tsoungiza?
The IslandsPhylakopi on Melos
Ayia Irini on Kea
Lady of PhylakopiPhylakopi Shrines from LHIIIA-CNW Altar of West Shrine: Male Figures!Large Bull FiguresLHIIIA2-LHIIIC
Phylakopi Bull FiguresCp. Dimini (N. Greece) & Mitrou (C. Greece)
Ayia IriniInitially Minoan, then MycenaeanCult Center from MC (18thC) to Hellenistic Period (3rdC B.C.)!
Ayia Irini50 Female LHIIIA-B TC Statues
Linear-B God Names We RecognizeA-RE Ares?E-NU-WA-RI-JO Enyalios (warlike or battle, later epithet for Ares)PA-JA-WO-NE Paiawon ("Paian", later epithet for Apollo)PO-SE-DA-O-NE Poseidon (main god at Pylos)E-NE-SI-DA-O-NE Enosidas ("Enosigaios" or "Earthshaker")DI-WO Zeus
Unknown Deities?PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia ("mistress")DA-PU-RI-TO-JO PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia of the LabyrinthA-TA-NA PO-TI-NI-JA Potnia (from?) Atana (= "Athena"?)DI-WI-JA Diwia (female counterpart of Zeus)PO-SI-DA-E-JA Posidaieia (female counterpart of Poseidon)PA-KI-JA-NI-JA Sphagianeia?? I-QE-JA Hippeia ("of horses"?)A-SI-WI-JA Aswia NE-WO-PE-O ?U-PO-JO ?