LAPERS Presentation Gary S. Curran, FCA, MAAA, ASA, EA CONSULTING ACTUARY G. S. Curran & Company, LTD. 10555 N. Glenstone Place Baton Rouge, LA 70810 (225)

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> LAPERS Presentation Gary S. Curran, FCA, MAAA, ASA, EA CONSULTING ACTUARY G. S. Curran &amp; Company, LTD. 10555 N. Glenstone Place Baton Rouge, LA 70810 (225) 769-4825 September 15, 2013 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Abbreviations NC = Normal Cost AL = Accrued Liability UAL = Unfunded Accrued Liability </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Funding Methods General Principles </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Benefits are funded with: Money the plan has now Money the plan will collect in the future </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Money that will be collected in the future can either be in the form of future normal costs or payments on the unfunded accrued liability </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> This years allocated share of future normal costs is in fact the Normal Cost as given in the valuation This years allocated share of future UAL payments is in fact the Amortization Payment as given in the valuation </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Funding Methods No Free Lunch Pay less now / Pay more later Pay more now / Pay less later </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Funding Methods 2 cost elements Normal Cost Payments on Unfunded Accrued Liability </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Funding Methods 2 types of methods Use assets to determine UAL Use assets to determine Future Normal Costs </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Funding Methods Type I : Use assets to determine UAL Projected Unit Credit Entry Age Normal </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Funding Methods Projected Unit Credit NC is based on Credited Projected Benefits for the year AL is the accumulated Credited Projected Benefits UAL = Accrued Liability Assets </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Funding Methods Entry Age Normal NC is based on payments as level percentage of pay AL is based on accumulated Normal Cost UAL = Accrued Liability Assets </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Funding Methods Type II : Use assets to determine Future Normal Costs Aggregate Frozen Entry / Attained Age Normal </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Funding Methods Aggregate NC is based on allocated share of the difference between Present Value of Benefits and the assets AL is set equal to assets UAL = 0 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Funding Methods Frozen Attained / Entry Age Normal NC is based on allocated share of the difference between Present Value of Benefits and sum of assets &amp; UAL AL is set equal to UAL + Assets UAL is the unamortized portion of a prior UAL determined under Projected Unit Credit or Entry Age Normal </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Funding Methods All funding methods, when properly applied, will accumulate sufficient assets over the working career of members to provide for retirees benefits The ultimate cost of a plan is independent of the funding method selected and depends on benefit levels and investment earnings Only to the extent that some methods accumulate assets more rapidly than others and these produce greater investment earnings do different cost methods affect total contributions Cost methods which only fund the earned benefit each year (i.e. Projected United Credit) will see costs rise on an individual basis as members get nearer to retirement </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Funding Methods The objective of the Entry Age Normal Cost Method is to produce normal costs which are level as a percentage of payroll All gains and losses under Entry Age Normal and Projected Unit Credit will produce additional Unfunded Liability credits or debits Gains or losses under the Aggregate or Frozen methods will not affect the unfunded accrued liability but will increase or decrease normal costs Cost methods with lower current costs will have higher future costs </li> </ul>