krane kenneth s. - introductory nuclear physics 1988
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DESCRIPTIONThis comprehensive text provides an introduction to basic nuclear physics, including nuclear decays and reactions and nuclear structure, while covering the essential areas of basic research and practical applications. Its emphasis on phenomonology and the results of real experiments distinguish this from all other texts available. Discussions of theory are reinforced with examples which illustrate and apply the theoretical formulism, thus aiding students in their reading and analysis of current literature. The text is designed to provide a core of material for students with minimal background in mathematics or quantum theory and offers more sophisticated material in separate sections.
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/ A CHRONOLOGY OF SOME OF THE MAJOR EVENTS IN
NUCLEAR PHYSJCS ,.
Discovery of radioactivity (Becquerel*) Isolation of radium (M. Curie* and P. Curie*) Special theory of relativity (Einstein*) a particle shown to be He nucleus (Rutherford* and Royds) Nuclear atom (Rutherford*) Development of cloud chamber (Wilson*) Discovery of stable isotopes (Thomson*) Planetarv atomic model (N. Bohr*)
Nuclear charge determined from X rays (l'v1oseley) Artificial transmutation bv nuclear reactions (Rutherford*)
-Development of mass spectrometer (:\ston*) Intrinsic spin proposed (Goudsmic and Uhlenbeck) Quantum mechanics developed (Schrodinger*) Theory of a radioactivity (Garnow. Gurney. Condon) Neutrino hypothesis (Pauli*) First electrostatic accelerator (Van de Graaif) First linear accelerator (Sloan* and Lawrence*) First cvclotron (Lawrence*. Livin2ston)
Discovery of deuterium (Urey"'. Brickwedde. \lurphyi Disco,erv of positron (Anderson*) Discovery of neutron (Chad\vick*) Proton-neutron nuclear model (Heisenberg"') First nuclear reaction using accelerator (Cockcroft* and Walton*) Discoverv of artificial radioactivitv (I. Curie*. F. Joliot*)
Theory of /3 radioactivity (E. Fermi*) \ifeson hypothesis (Yukawa*) Development of coincidence technique (Bo the*) Compound nucleus the,,ry proposed (N. Bohr*) Discovery of lepton in cosmic rays (Nedderme\'er. .-\nderson*) Discovery of nuclear fission (Hahn* and Strassmann) Thermonuclear fusion proposed as source of energy in stars ( Bethe*) Liquid-drop model of fission (N. Bohr* and Wheeler) Production of first transuranium element (McMillan* and Seaborg*) First betatron, magnetic induction electron accelerator (Kerst) First controlled fission reactor (Fermi*) Phase stability developed for synchrotron (McMillan*, Veksler)
1945 1946 1946 1947 1947 1947 1948 1949 1949 1952 1952 1953 1953
1953 1955 1956 1956 1958 1959 1964 1964 1967 1967 1970 1971 1972 1974 1975 1977 1983 1983
First fission bomb tested Big Bang cosmology (Garnow) Development of nuclear magnetic resonance (Bloch* and Purcell*\ Development of radiocarbon dating (Libby*) First proton synchrocyclotron. 350 MeV (Berkeley) Discovery of :; meson (Powell*) First linear proton accelerator. 32 l\ile V (Alvarez*) Shell model of nuclear structure (Mayer. Jensen*. Haxel. Suess) Development of scintillation counter (Kullmann. Coltman. l\itarshalll First proton synchrotron. 2.3 GeV (Brookhavenl First thermonuclear bomb tested Strangeness hypothesis (Gell-Mann*. Nishijima) Collective model of nuclear structure (A. Bohr*. Mottelson"'.
Rain\vater*l First production of strange particles (Brookhaven) Discovery of antiproton (Chamberlain* and Segre*) Experimental detection of neutrino (Reines and Cowan) Parity violation in weak interactions (Lee*. Yang*. Wu et al.) Recoilless emission of gamn1a ravs (Mossbauer*)
26-GeV proton synchrotron (CERNl Observation of CP violauon in K0 decav (Cronin* and Fitch"'l Quark model of hadrons (Gell-Mann*. Zweig) Initial operation of SLAC accelerator for 20-GeV electrons (Stanford) Electroweak model proposed (Weinberg". Salam*) Chann hypothesis (Glashov.*) Proton-proton collider I CERNI 500-GeV proton synchrotron ( Fermilab) J /i?- particle discovered and charmed quark confirmed (Richter*. Ting" l Discovery of lepton (Perl) T particle discovered and bottom quark inferred (Lederman) Operation of proton-antiproton collider at 300 GeV (CERN) Discovery of weak bosons W ~ and zo (Rubbia*)
Names marked wirh an as1erisk are Nobel laurea1es in physics or chemis1ry. allhough no! necessarily for !he work lis1ed.
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INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR PHYSICS
INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Kenneth S. Krane Oregon State University
JOHN WILEY & SONS New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore
\opyri!?hl '' I 981'. hv John fi:w & Sons: Inc. ~ . . .
R cprt)duc11on o~ lran~lation .Df :an\' part of 1hi, work bcvond !hat pemlt!IC'd hy Section> l n- and lo~. of 1he J 9711 Unila!: Siatc., Copvnght AI \I 1 thou; th permission ol li!K copvn!(ht
This v.ork began as a collaborative attempt vith David Halliday to revise ant update the second edition of his classic text lnrroductory .f>./uclear Physics (}\;ev 'l'ork: \\iiley. 1955). As the project evolved. it became clear that. ov.ing to othei commitments. Professor Halliday \vould be able to devote only limited time t< the project and he therefore volunteered to remove himself from active participa tion. a proposal to \vhich I reluctantly and regretfully agreed. He was kine enou~1 lC sign 0vt>r to me the rights to use the material from the previou~ edition
I first encountered Hah11.iay:. lcXl ci~ ..... .,ndergraduate physics major. and ii v. as perhaps my first real introduction to nuclear physics. I recall being impressec by iti; clarity and ill> readability. and in preparing this nev. version. I have tried tc preserve these elements. which are among the strengths of the previous work.
Audience This text is written primarily for an undergraduate audience. but could be used in introductory graduate surveys of nuclear physics as v.ell. l t can be used specifically for physics majors as part of a survey of modern physics. but could (with an appropriate selection of material) serve as an introductory course for other areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear chemistry. nuclear engineering, radiation biology. and nuclear medicine.
Background It is expected that students have a previous background in quan-tum physics. either at the introductory level !such as the author's text Modern Physics (Nev.: York: Wiley, 1983)] or at a more advanced. but still undergraduate level. (A brief summary of the needed quantum background is given in Chapter 2.) The text is therefore designed in a" two-track"' mode, so that the material that requires the advanced work in quantum mechanics, for instance. transition probabilities or matrix elements, can be separated from the rest of the text by skipping those sections that require such a background. This can be done without interrupting the logical flow of the discussion.
Mathematical background at the level of differential equations should be sufficient for most applications.
Emphasis There are two features that distinguish the pr-esent book.. The first is the emphasis on breadth. The presentation of a broad selection of material permits the instructor to tailor a curriculum to meet the needs of any particular
student audience. The complete text is somewhat short for a full-year course, but too long for a course of quarter or semester length. The instructor is therefore able to select material that will provide students with the broadest possible introduction to the field of nuclear physics. consistent \vith the time available for the course.
The second feature is the unabashedly experimental and phenomenological emphasis and orientation of the presentation. -The discussions of decay and reaction phenomena are accompanied with examples of experimental studies from the literature. These examples have been carefully selected following searches for papers that present data in the clearest possible manner and that relate most directly to the matter under discussion. These original experiments are discussed. often with accompanying diagrams of apparatus. and results wirh uncertainties are given. all in the attempt to convince students that progress in nuclear physics sprang not exclusively from the forehead of Fermi. but instead has been painstakingly won in the laboratory. At the same time. the rationale and motivation for the experiments are discussed. and their contributions to the theory are emphasized.
Organization The book is divided into four units: Basic Nuclear Structure. Nuclear Decay and Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions. and Extensions and t\.ppli-cations. The first unit presents background material on nuclear sizes and shapes. discusses the two-nucleon problem. and presents an introduction to nuclear models. These latter two topics can be skipped without loss of continuity in an abbreviated course. The second unit on decay and radioactivity presents the traditional topics. with ne\v material included to bring nuclear decay nearly into the current era (the recentlv discovered heavv'' decav modes. such as 14C. , , . double f3 decay, /3-delayed nucleon emission. Mossbauer dfect. and so on). The third unit surveys nuclear reactions. including fission and fusion and their applications; The final unit deals with topics that fall only loosely under the nuclear physics classification. including hyperfine interactions. particle physics. nuclear astrophysics. and general applications including nuclear medicine. The emphasis here is on the overlap \Vith other physics and nonphysics specialties. including atomic physics, high-energy physics. cosmology. chemistry. and medi-cine. Much of this material, particularly in Chapters 18 and 19. represents accomplishments of the last couple of years and therefore. as in all such volatile areas. may be outdated before the book is published. Even if this should occur. however, the instructor is presented with a golden opportunity to make important points about progress in science. Chapter 20 features applications involving similarly recent developments, such as PET scans. The material in this last unit builds to a considerable degree on the previous material: it would be very