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  • 1. Keeping Students Safe While Working Outdoors and Around Animals Brenda Jacklitsch, MS National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Association of AgriculturalEducators Convention December 2008 The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by theNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy.

2. Percentage of Work-related Deaths by Industry

  • Workers under age 18 compared with all workers, U.S., 19922000.
  • Source: Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Special Research Files, BLS, analysis by NIOSH [2003]. (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-128/2003128.htm)

3. Preventing Deaths, Injuries & Illnesses of Young Workers

  • Talk to students about work:
    • Talk to students about safety & health hazards, & students rights & responsibilities as workers.
  • Ensure the safety of school-based work experience programs:
    • Ensure that programs & partnerships offer students work that is allowed by law & is in safe & healthful environments.
  • Include worker safety & health in the school curriculum:
    • Incorporate occupational safety & health topics into curricula (e.g., safety & health regulations, how to recognize hazards, how to communicate safety concerns, where to go for help).
    • Information is available from NIOSH atwww.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/99-141.pdf.
  • Know the laws:
    • If you are responsible for signing work permits or certificates, know the child labor laws. State laws may be more restrictive than Federal laws, & they vary considerably from State to State.
    • Visithttp://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/agriculturalemployment.htm orhttp://www.osha.gov/SLTC/teenworkers/index.html .

4. Two Big Misconceptions

  • Dont the Kids Already Know?
    • Yes, Maybe, & No.
  • Its Common Sense!
    • The problem with assuming something should be common sense is sometimes its not.

5. Topics

  • Wildlife
    • 3.1Stinging Insects
    • 3.2Fire Ants
    • 3.3Venomous Snakes
    • 3.4Venomous Spiders
  • Other Outdoor Hazards
    • 4.1Poisonous Plants
    • 4.2Cold Stress
    • 4.3Heat Stress
    • 4.4UV Radiation
  • Safe Animal Handling:Considerations Before Handling & PPE
  • Zoonoses
    • 2.1Zoonotic Diseases
    • 2.2Rabies
    • 2.3Vector-borne Diseases

6. Section 1: SAFE ANIMAL HANDLING 7. Before Handling Any Animal

  • Consider Environmental Conditions.
    • Weather - Too Hot or Cold?
    • Surface & terrain.
  • Consider Animal Behavior.
    • Gender & breed differences.
    • Individual animals history.
    • Current degree of animals agitation & anxiety.
    • Mothers with offspring & intact males.
    • Understand & utilize the animals flight zone.
    • Be cautious with an animal that has separated itself from the herd.

1. ANIMAL HANDLING 8. Before Handling Any Animal

  • Consider Available Equipment & Facilities.
    • Provide escape routes & barriers for the animal & yourself.
    • Use appropriate restraints that are in good condition.
    • Make sure you have what you need before getting the animal.
    • First Aid Kit.

1. ANIMAL HANDLING 9. Before Handling Any Animal

  • Consider Appropriate Handling Techniques.
    • Personal skill levels vs. handling a particular animal.
    • Be extra cautious around animals not often handled.
    • Minimize noise & number of visitors in area.
    • Always have a buddy nearby that is paying attention.
    • Use a calm voice.
    • Alternate tasks to avoid repetitive motion injuries.
    • Use proper lifting techniques.
    • Try to stay away from the kicking zone.
    • Never tie a lead rope to yourself or wrap one around your wrist.

1. ANIMAL HANDLING 10. Personal Protective Equipment

  • Wear properly fitting clothes.
  • Protective footwear.
  • May want leather gloves or surgical gloves.
  • Hearing Protection.

1. ANIMAL HANDLING 11. Hearing Protection

  • Exposure to noise levels above 85 dB can cause hearing loss & tinnitus.

1. ANIMAL HANDLING 12. Animal Handling? QUESTIONS 13. Section 2: ZOONOSES 14. ZOONOSES

  • 2.1What is a zoonotic disease?
  • 2.2Examples
  • 2.3Rabies
  • 2.4Vector-borne diseases

15. 2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES 16. What is a Zoonotic Disease?

  • An infectious disease that can be transferred from animals to humans.
  • Approximately60%of all human pathogens are zoonotic.
  • Zoonotic diseases can be caused by:
    • Parasite
    • Fungi
    • Bacteria
    • Virus
    • Prion

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES 17. Parasite

  • An organism living in, with, or on another organism.
  • Examples:
    • Babesiosis
    • Giardia

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES Babesiainfected blood cells (http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/VBDP/smear.htm) 18. Fungus

  • A spore-producing organism that includes molds, mildews, mushrooms, & yeasts.
  • Examples:
    • Ringworm

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES Ringworm(CDC/Dr. Lucille K. Georg ) 19. Bacteria

  • Unicellular microorganisms that can live in soil, water, plants, or animals.
  • Examples:
    • Lyme Disease
    • Anthrax
    • Brucellosis

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES Anthrax lesion on arm of wool factory worker(CDC/Dr. Philip S. Brachman ) 20. Virus

  • A sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell.
  • Examples:
    • West Nile Virus
    • Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
    • Rabies

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES Transmission electron micrograph of West Nile virus(CDC/ P.E. Rollin ) 21. Prion

  • A protein particle that causes various neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Examples:
    • Scrapie
    • Bovine SpongiformEncephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)

2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES BSE-infected cow brain tissue (Holes caused by infection)(CDC/Al Jenny ) 22. Examples of Zoonotic Diseases 2.1 ZOONOTIC DISEASES KEY [B]ovine [E]quine [S]wine [O]vine [C]amelids [R]abbits [P]oultry Parasite Cryptosporidiosis[B,E] Giardia [B,E] Prion BSE[B] Scrapie[O] Virus Avian Influenza[P] Orf[O,C] Pseudocowpox[B] Rabies[B,E,S,O,C,R] Vesicular Stomatitis[B,E,S]

  • Bacteria
  • Anthrax[B,E,O,C,S]
  • Brucellosis[B,E,O,S]
  • Dermatophilosis[B,E]
  • E. coli[B,E]
  • Leptospirosis[B,E,O]
  • Psittacosis[P]
  • Q Fever[B,O]
  • Tuberculosis[B]
  • Fungus
  • Ringworm[B,E,S,O,C,R]

23. 2.2 RABIES 24. RABIES

  • Caused by a virus.
  • Affects mammals.
  • You can get rabies from the saliva of infected mammals.
    • Bites & scratches.
  • The rabies virus damages nerve cells.

2.2 RABIES 25. Symptoms 2.2 RABIES Insomnia Anxiety Confusion Paralysis Hallucinations Agitation Hyper salivation Difficulty swallowing Hydrophobia(fear of water) DEATH

    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Malaise

Late Symptoms Early Symptoms 26. Recommendations

  • Look before you reach.
  • Shake out work boots before wearing.
  • Dont touch or pick-up wild animals or strange dogs or cats.