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The Status and Distribution of European MammalsCompiled by Helen J. Temple and Andrew Terry

IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM Regional Assessment

The Status and Distribution of European MammalsCompiled by Helen J. Temple and Andrew Terry

IUCN Species Programme

Published by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in collaboration with the European Union. The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN.

Citation:

Temple, H.J. and Terry, A. (Compilers). 2007. The Status and Distribution of European Mammals. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. viii + 48pp, 210 x 297 mm. Dan Seddon at Franklyn Jones www.franklynjones.com NatureBureau NatureBureau, 36 Kingfisher Court, Hambridge Road, Newbury RG14 5SJ, UK Information Press Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, http://bookshop.europe.eu IUCN Publications Services, www.iucn.org/publications A catalogue of IUCN publications is also available.

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Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union New freephone number:

00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007. ISBN 92-79-04815-9 European Communities, 2007 Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Printed in the United Kingdom. The text of this book is printed on 115 gsm environmentally-friendly paper.

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ContentsForeword ..................................................................................................................................................................... v Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................................................... vi Executive summary ................................................................................................................................................... viii 1. Background ............................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 The European context ..................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 European mammals: diversity and endemism ................................................................................................. 1 1.3 Species threatened status ................................................................................................................................ 3 1.4 Objectives of the assessment ........................................................................................................................... 4 2. Assessment methodology ..................................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Global versus regional assessment .................................................................................................................. 5 2.2 Geographic scope ............................................................................................................................................ 5 2.3 Taxonomic scope ............................................................................................................................................. 5 2.4 Assessment protocol ........................................................................................................................................ 6 2.5 Evaluation of the assessments .......................................................................................................................... 7 3. Results ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Threatened status of mammals ........................................................................................................................ 8 3.2 Status by taxonomic group .............................................................................................................................. 9 3.3 Extinctions ....................................................................................................................................................... 9 3.4 Spatial distribution of species ........................................................................................................................ 11 3.4.1 Species richness ................................................................................................................................... 11 3.4.2 Threatened species richness ............................................................................................................... 11 3.4.3 Endemic species richness .................................................................................................................... 11 3.5 Major threats to terrestrial mammals in Europe ............................................................................................ 11 3.6 Major threats to marine mammals in Europe ................................................................................................. 14 3.7 Demographic trends ...................................................................................................................................... 15 4. Discussion .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 4.1 Status and population trends of European mammals .................................................................................... 17 4.2 Protection of habitats and species in Europe ................................................................................................ 17 4.3 Protection of habitats and species in the EU ................................................................................................. 20 4.4 Conservation management of mammals in the EU ........................................................................................ 20 4.5 Contribution of new Member States to mammal conservation in the EU ..................................................... 22 4.6 Anthropochorous taxa and conservation priorities ....................................................................................... 22 4.7 Extinction risk versus conservation status .................................................................................................... 23 4.8 Red List versus priority for conservation action ............................................................................................ 24 5. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................... 25 5.1 Methodology lessons learned ..................................................................................................................... 25 5.2 Application of project outputs ...................................................................................................................... 25 5.3 Future work ................................................................................................................................................... 25 5.4 Conservation priorities .................................................................................................................................. 25 5.4.1 Species conservation ........................................................................................................................... 25 5.4.2 Site conservation ................................................................................................................................. 26 5.4.3 Conservation of the wider environment ............................................................................................. 26 5.4.4 Monitoring and research ...................................................................................................................... 26

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References .................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Appendix 1. Red List status of European mammals .................................................................................................... 29 Appendix 2. Species assessed as Not Applicable (NA) according to IUCN Regional Red Listing guidelines .......... 35 Appendix 3. Species listed on Annexes II, IV and V of the Habitats Directive ........................................................ 37 Appendix 4. Example species summary and distribution map ................................................................................ 40

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ForewordEurope is a continent rich in natural and cultur

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