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IUCN Criteria of Endangerment
IUCN Criteria of EndangermentPraveen Kumar SinghM.Sc. Environmental ScienceCentral University of RajasthanIUCN at a glance
Founded in 1948 as the worlds first global environmental organisationToday the largest professional global conservation networkA leading authority on the environment and sustainable developmentMore than 1,200 member organizations including 200+ government and 900+ non-government organizationsAlmost 11,000 voluntary scientists and experts, grouped in six Commissions in some 160 countriesIUCNs work is supported by over 1,000 staff in 45 offices and hundreds of partners in public, NGO and private sectors around the world. The Unions headquarters are located in Gland, near Geneva, in Switzerland.A neutral forum for governments, NGOs, scientists, business and local communities to find practical solutions to conservation and development challenges
Continued Thousands of field projects and activities around the worldGovernance by a Council elected by member organizations every four years at the IUCN World Conservation CongressFunded by governments, bilateral and multilateral agencies, foundations, member organisations and corporationsOfficial Observer Status at the United Nations General Assembly
What does IUCN do?Conserving biodiversity is central to the mission of IUCN. It demonstrate how biodiversity is fundamental to addressing some of the worlds greatest challenges such as climate change, sustainable development and food security.To deliver conservation and sustainability at both the global and local level, IUCN builds on its strengths in the following areas:Science 11,000 experts setting global standards in their fields, for example, the definitive international standard for species extinction risk the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Action hundreds of conservation projects all over the world from the local level to those involving several countries, all aimed at the sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources.
Influence through the collective strength of more than 1,200 government and non-governmental Member organizations, IUCN influences international environmental conventions, policies and laws.
Continued How does IUCN work?
All of the work is framed by a Global Programme, developed with and approved by IUCN member organisations every four years. Current programme runs from 2012 to 2016.
IUCN's Global Programme is coordinated by IUCNs Secretariat and delivered in conjunction with IUCN member organisations, Commissions and IUCN's theme-based programmes:
BusinessEconomicsEcosystem managementEnvironmental lawForest conservationGenderGlobal policyMarine and polarProtected areasScience and knowledgeSocial policySpeciesWaterWorld Heritage
Continued The IUCNCategoriesNot Evaluated (NE)Near Threatened (NT)Data Deficient (DD)THREATENEDEndangered (EN)Critically Endangered (CR)Vulnerable (VU)Extinct in the Wild (EW)Extinct (EX)Least Concern (LC)(Evaluated)(Adequate data)8There are NINE IUCN Red List categories.Data Deficient (DD)A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status.
Tree TomatoSolanum [Cyphomandra] betaceaNot Evaluated (NE)A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.
Although DD and NE are not threatened categories, taxa classed as DD or NE should NOT be treated as not threatened.9Definitions in the User Guidelines:
Data Deficient - A taxon is DD when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, if a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.
Not Evaluated - A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been assessed under the IUCN criteria. Currently, this applies to most of the worlds described species.
Data Deficient (DD) tagsTaxa listed as DD may be given the following tagsUnknown provenance: The taxon is known only from one or more specimens with no or extremely uncertain locality information, so that it is not possible to make any further inference about its status. Uncertain taxonomic status: The taxons validity at the species level has been questioned or is unconfirmed, e.g., it may represent a subspecies, hybrid, ecophenotype or aberrant individual.Insufficient information: There is inadequate information on the population size/structure, trend or range to apply the Red List Criteria. 10Near Threatened (NT)A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for CR, EN or VU now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.Least Concern (LC)A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for CR, EN,VU or NT. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
Chinkara in Desert National Park
Blackbuck(Antilope cervicapra)11Definitions in the User Guidelines:
Near Threatened - A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.
(NT details on p. 56 of the User Guidelines) - To qualify for the Near Threatened category, the taxon should be close to qualifying for the Vulnerable category. The estimates of population size or habitat should be close to the Vulnerable thresholds, especially when there is a high degree of uncertainty, or possibly meet some of the subcriteria. This may be combined with biological susceptibility and threat. The category Near Threatened is not specified by its own criteria, but instead by the proximity of a species to the criteria for the category Vulnerable. For taxa listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, assessors are asked to indicate as part of the justification, which criteria were nearly met. For example, NT listing would be justified in the following cases (in each case, any criteria not specifically mentioned are not met and are not nearly met): NOTE: Taxa that are highly dependent on conservation actions are also often listed as Near Threatened. In these cases, were the conservation actions to be removed, the species might very quickly deteriorate into a threatened category. For example: the White Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, is protected throughout its range. In the absence of conservation measures, poaching would certainly occur, and within just a few years the species would quickly meet the threshold for criterion C1 and potentially A3.
Least Concern - A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
There are three general scenarios under which many LC species fall: Widespread and common taxa, that might have stable populations, be increasing in numbers or even be invasive species.Taxa that are declining at a rate that is below the thresholds for the threatened categories and thus do not currently qualify for listing as threatened. These taxa currently have a low extinction risk, but they might be a priority in the long term, as their gradual decline may eventually result in them having a population size small enough to qualify for a threatened category.Taxa that are restricted in range or that have a small population but are not suffering any threats (e.g. many island species). Unless the population is extremely small, if no threats affect the taxon it is best classified as Least Concern.A taxon is threatened when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria for the thresholds stated in one of the three threatened categories: Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered. Critically Endangered (CR)CR taxa are considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.Endangered (EN)EN taxa are considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.TigerVulnerable (VU)VU taxa are considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
Great Indian bustard
Sarus crane12Definitions in the User Guidelines:
Critically Endangered - A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered, and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Endangered - A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered, and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
Vulnerable - A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
Each of these categ