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2. MatterPhysical State PropertiesChangesEnergy SolidPhysical PhysicalExothermic Liquid Chemical ChemicalEndothermic GasIntrinsicPlasmaExtrinsic 3. Matter Composition Pure SubstanceMixture HomogeneousHeterogeneousColloidElement Compound Solution SuspensionMetal AcidCoarseNon-metal BaseMetalloidSalt 4. DEFINITIONSMATTER AND CHEMISTRY 5. CHEMISTRY The science of matter, itsproperties, structure, composition and its changesduring interactions and chemical reactions. The branch of science that deals with theidentification of the substances of which matter iscomposed; the investigation of their properties andthe ways in which they interact, combine, andchange; and the use of these processes to formnew substances 6. MATTER anything that occupies space, possessesmass, offers resistance and can be felt by one ormore of our senses Mass is the amount of matter in an object andvolume is the amount of space occupied by anobject 7. PROPERTIESCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL 8. PROPERTIESGeneral Properties Shape Color Electrical Conductivity Odor Size Temperature Mass Taste Weight Specific GravitySpecial Properties Density Liquid Viscosity, Turbidity Effect Of Magnet Solid SolubilityDuctility, Malleability, Elasticity 9. DEFINITIONSPhysical Properties Properties that can be determined withoutnecessarily changing the chemical compositionChemical Properties Properties that cannot be determined just byviewing or touching the substance Signs that chemical change has occurred: Odor, color, or temperature change Precipitate or gas formation 10. DEFINITIONSExtrinsic Properties Properties that are dependent to the amount of thesubstance or its massIntrinsic Properties Properties that are not dependent to the amount ofthe substance and is ,therefore, unaffected bymass. 11. PHASESSOLID, LIQUID, GAS, AND PLASMA 12. SOLIDS Most compact Has no ability to flow Definite shape Definite volume 13. LIQUIDS Less compact when compared with solids Has the ability to flow Follows the shape of its container Definite volume 14. GASES Least compact Follows the shape of its container No definite volume 15. CHANGESCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL 16. ENERGY USE Endothermic From a more compact state of matter, to a less compact state of matter. (ex: solid--->gas) Exothermic From a less compact state of matter to a more compact state of matter(ex: liquid--->solid 17. PHYSICAL Physical changes are changes affecting the form ofa chemical substance, but do not change thechemical composition of that substance. Physical changes are used to separate mixtures intotheir component compounds, but cannot usuallybe used to separate compounds into chemicalelements or simpler compounds. 18. CHEMICAL Chemical changes occur when a substancecombines with another to form a new substanceor, alternatively, decomposes into two or moredifferent substances. These processes are called chemical reactionsand, in general, are not reversible except by furtherchemical reactions. 19. EXAMPLESPhysicalChemical Heating and cooling Oxidation Magnetism Neutralization Crystallization Reduction Mixtures Decomposition Solutions Alloys 20. CLASSIFICATIONSUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES 21. PURE SUBSTANCE Made up of only one kink of material All particles are exactly the same Has definite properties Examples Salt Iron Water Can be classified into 2 groups Elements Compounds 22. ELEMENTS Simplest form of matter Atom Smallest particle of an element Atoms of the same element are alike Operational Definition: Substances that cannot be broken down any further 23. METALS Most are conductors of heat and energy Generally have high densities Have a fairly high melting point Shiny and are lustrous Most are ductile and malleable Tends to lose their outer most electrons whenchemically combined Most are solid at room temperature except formercury (Hg) which is in its liquid form 24. METALS Metals that are magnetic Iron (Fe) Nickel (Ni) Cobalt (Co) Reacts with water to form their metal oxide Operational Definition: Usually become basic when heated 25. NON-METALS Dull in appearance Brittle Dont conduct heat and electricity Usually lower densities and melting points Tends to gain electrons when chemically combined Half of non-metals are gases at roomtemperature, such as noble gases, except for brominewhich is liquid Operational Definition: Usually become acidic when heated 26. METALLOIDS Has physical properties close to metals Intermediate electrical conductivity Intermediate reflectance Has chemical properties close to non-metals Low densities and melting points Brittle Examples : Boron Silicon Germanium Arsenic Antimony Tellurium 27. COMPOUNDS Substances composed of 2 or more elements thatare chemically combined Molecule Smallest particle of a compound Operational Definition: Substances that can be broken down into simpler elements(through heat/electricity 28. ACIDS Tastes sour Contains hydrogen Ionizes to produce positive hydrogen ions(H+) whichis a proton Hydrogen ions makes acids good electrolytes Electrolyte Proton donors 29. BASES Taste bitter Slippery to the touch Can be poisonous and corrosive Contains Hydroxide ions (OH-) Proton Acceptors 30. INDICATORSIndicators Compounds that show a definite color when mixed wit anacid or baseSubstanceBlue LP Red LP Methyl Orange PhenolphthaleinAcidRed Red Red ClearBaseBlueBlue OrangeMagenta 31. SALT Formed when an acid reacts chemically with abase. This process is called neutralization Neutralization is only compete when the hydrogenand hydroxide ions are equalHCL NaOHH2O (Acid)(Base) NaCl 32. ELECTROLYSIS A chemical separation of a compound intoelements Anode + Cathode Reduction An electron is gained Happens at the cathode Oxidation An electron is lost Happens at the anode 33. MIXTURES May change physical appearance when dissolved Operational Definition: A mix of matter that can be separated through physicalmeans 34. HETEROGENEOUS A mixture that does not appear to be the samethroughout Particles are large enough to be seen and toseparate from the mixture Tends to settle when the mixture is left undisturbed Types Coarse - Mostly Solid Suspension Contains a liquid in which visible particles settle Effect of Light Light slightly passes through 35. HOMOGENEOUS Mixtures appear to be the same throughout Particles do not settle when allowed to stand 36. SOLUTION The best mixed of all Particles are too small to be seen Formed when one substance dissolves another Effect of Light Light passes through 37. COLLOID Particles are not dissolved but are dispersed Do not settle but remain suspended for some time, Somewhat large particles relative to a solution Brownian Movement Effect of light Makes the colloid appear to glow The colloid scatters the light 38. SEPARATING MIXTURES Magnetism Uses magnets to separate metallic and non-metalliccomponents of a mixture Decantation Allowing solid particles to settle first then pouring the liquidinto another container Filtration Separating undissoved solid particles from the liquid byallowing the liquid to pass through a filter 39. SEPARATING MIXTURES Evaporation Separating a liquid from a solid wherein the liquid part is lostand only the solid part is recovered Distillation separating a mixture of 2 liquids by evaporating the onewith the lower boiling point Chromatography Method of physical separation making use of the adsorbentproperty of a substance 40. EXPERIMENT DATA 41. EXPT. #3Sample No. Physical Color Odor Solubility in Water Effect of Magnet StateCopper StripsSolidCopper BrownOdorless Insoluble Non MagneticSulfur PowderSolidBright Yellow ReekingInsoluble Non MagneticSucroseSolidCrystal White Aromatic Soluble Non MagneticIodine CrystalsSolidMetallic Gray MustySlightly SolubleNon MagneticEthyl AlcoholLiquid Clear Fragrant MiscibleNon MagneticSodium ChlorideSolidCrystal White Odorless Soluble Non MagneticNaphthaleneSolidWhite FreshInsoluble Non MagneticSodium Bicarbonate SolidWhite Odorless Slightly SolubleNon MagneticCopper Sulfate SolidLight BlueOdorless Slightly SolubleNon MagneticDilute Acetic Acid Liquid Foggy White PungentMiscibleNon MagneticAcetoneLiquid Clear NoxiousMiscibleNon MagneticIron SolidSilvery Odorless Insoluble Magnetic 42. EXPT. #4 Diff. Bet. Initial and Final Chemical System Initial StateFinal State StateLead NitriteColorless, Colder, Colorless,Odor and Temperature+ Hydrochloric Acid PungentOdorlessChangeSodium BicarbonateColorless, Gas Formation,Gas Formation+ Hydrochloric Acid Odorless Colorless, OdorlessCopper SulfateBlue,Blue, Odor Change+ Hydrochloric Acid Metallic Smell ReekingPotassium ChromateYellow,Orange, Color Change+ Hydrochloric Acid Fresh SmellOdorlessMagnesium ChlorideColorless, White, Gas Formation, Gas Formation,+ Hydrochloric Acid Odorless Musty Odor ChangeLead NitriteColorless, White,Precipitate Formation+ Ammonia PungentFoggy, PungentSodium BicarbonateColorless, Colder, Colorless,Odor and Temperature+ Ammonia Odorless Pungent Change 43. EXPT. #4Copper Sulfate Blue,Colder, Foggy, Precipitate Formation,+ AmmoniaMetallic Smell Pungent, BlueOdor, Temp. ChangePotassium Chromate Yellow,Colder, Colorless, Odor and Temperature+ AmmoniaFresh SmellPungentChangeMagnesium Chloride Colorless, Colorless, Odor Change+ AmmoniaOdorless PungentLead Nitrite Colorless, Foggy, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide PungentOdorlessSodium Bicarbonate Colorless, White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Odorless FoggyCopper Sulfate Blue,Foggy, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Metallic Smell BluePotassium Chromate Yellow,White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Fresh SmellFoggyMagnesium Chloride Colorless, White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Odorless Foggy 44. EXPT. #5Chemical SystemObservation AnalysisCopper turnings and sulfur The burning sulfur evaporated and leftExamined w/ lens - Copper and sulfur are separate. a noxious smell while the copper simply - Sulfur is yellow w/ large granules. melted. - Some of the copper is bent. - Produced a noxious smell - Sulfur evaporated - Copper meltedHeated together- Copper turned blackMagnesium ribbon The magnesium ribbon heated up untilBurned in air- Yellow-green flameits flash point and burned in a bright yellow green flame. The solutionCombustion product - Black, fragile, breaking, ashes produced a sour smell. - Cloudy waterDissolved in water - Grayish color - Red turned to blueSolution tested w/ red and blue litmus paper - Basic solution 45. Sulfur powder The sulfur powder was acidic after it wasBurned in airTurned black burned and dissolved in waterCombustion product Black, ashesDissolved in water Cloudy waterSolution tested w/ red and blue litmus paper Blue turned to red Acidic solutionIodine crystals The iodine crystals vaporized into pinkHeated Pink gas gas then formed crystals on the Evaporation of crystalsevaporating dish above. The resultingcrystals stain a yellow-orange tinge on Shiny, gray, yellow-orange stain, no handsVapor cooled smellCopper SulfateThe copper sulfate turned to whiteHeated Evaporation of copper sulfate crystals indicating a chemical change turned to whiteSodium Chloride and sandWhen the sand and salt was mixed, theyExamine w/ lensSand sticks to saltcan be clearly distinguished from eachother.Mixed w/ water Cloudy brown water When mixed with water, the salt Salt dissolved dissolved while the sand settled at the Sand settled at the bottom bottom.We filtered the solution and after Murky, yellowish liquidevaporating the filtrate, the sandFiltered Small sand particles remained. Yellowish salt crystalsFiltrate allowed to evaporateDark yellow middle 46. EXPT. #7 Color Odor Taste Water ColorlessOdorlessTastelessFresh butSweet with a stingingEthyl AlcoholColorlessStingy aftertasteFresh but Sweet with a mild1st Distillate ColorlessStingystinging aftertaste Sweet with a2nd Distillate Colorless Very Stingydominant stinging aftertaste CloudyNoxious andA mild stingingResidue Yellow Reekingaftertaste 47. EXPT. 8 Anode GasCathode GasRelative VolumeHalf compared to Two times larger in cathode gasvolumeReaction to Fire Brightens the flame of Catches fire in a loud the matchpopping noise 48. EXPT. #9Color DsDfRfGreen~ Yellow9.9 cm. 0.9~ Blue 10.9 cm.0.99~ Water 11 cm.Blue~ Blue 10.4 cm.0.99~ Water10.5 cm.Yellow~ Yellow 10.3 cm. 0.9~ Pink9.3 cm. 0.8~ Water11.5 cm.Black~ Black11.2 cm.1~ Water11.2 cm.