Introduction to humanities and history

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A very brief description of the benefits of studying humanities and an overview of some historical developments including the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict

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<ul><li> 1. Dr. Sivabala Naidu sivabala@eltc.edu.my </li> <li> 2. To describe and discuss Humanities To explain the importance of Humanities To discuss key historical events of the twentieth century </li> <li> 3. Study of human concerns Different from natural processes (e.g. physics or chemistry). </li> <li> 4. From classical Greek paideia which means general education To prepare young men for citizenship Dates back to the 5th century. </li> <li> 5. Deals with the great traditions of the past Develops critical thinking Improve creativity and sensitivity to the environment </li> <li> 6. One facet in the study of humanities. Other areas are geography, performing arts, visual arts, philosophy etc. </li> <li> 7. The first Zionist Congress was held in Swtzerland (1897) It led to the formation of the World Zionist Organisation with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine Arab nationalism grew in response to this with Palestine at the centre of conflict </li> <li> 8. British claimed Palestine after its war with the Ottomans (Turkey) Thus the fight for Palestine intensified British handed the issue of ownership of Palestine to the UN (1947) A UN Special Commission was set up to settle the dispute </li> <li> 9. The commission decided to split the territory (Partition of the territory) The Zionists accepted the proposal but the Arabs rejected it Brought to the UN general assembly which accepted the proposal The issue is still in conflict </li> <li> 10. Started approximately around 100BC in the Bujang Valley in Kedah Evidence: Candi Batu Pahat in Bujang Valley (located in Merbok, Kedah) Integration of Hindu administration and Indian traditions </li> <li> 11. Via ancient Hindu governments Example: Srivijaya a centre of trade and commerce in the Malay archipelago </li> <li> 12. Founded in 1400 by a Hindu prince from Palembang (Parameswara) He set up a maritime government Prospered because of its strategic location Malacca was at its peak under Sultan Mansur Shah </li> <li> 13. Internal rivalry and corruption caused its decline The Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511 European colonial expansion began with this invasion </li> <li> 14. The British developed an interest in Malaya in the mid 18th century First acquisition: Penang from Kedah Second acquisition: Singapore from Johor Third acquisition: Malacca from the Dutch </li> <li> 15. Malaya experienced economic growth Vital commodities: tin and rubber Chinese and Indian migration increased Stark divisions between Malays, Chinese and Indians existed due to British policies </li> <li> 16. The British ruled over Malaya till 1942 Defeated by the Japanese in WW2 Japanese imposed military rule: decline in economy The British returned in 1945: focus on the economy and administration Formed the Malayan Union: gave equal rights of citizenship to all. </li> <li> 17. Malays were upset with the disregard for their rights and that of the respective states UMNO (United Malays National Organisation) was established British abandoned the Malayan Union. Established a federal administrative structure Offered citizenship to non-Malay immigrants Federation of Malaya came into being in 1948. </li> <li> 18. The Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) and Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) were formed. Alliance with UMNO The Alliance won in 1955 Achieved independence in 1957 </li> <li> 19. By 1900, Germany produced more steel than France and Britain Germans believed that they were superior They began to tap into African, Middle East and Asian markets The British were unhappy with Germans success </li> <li> 20. Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy Germans build their naval force British felt threatened British-France-Russia formed the Triple Entente </li> <li> 21. A series of violent events occurred. In Bosnia (1908), Morocco (1911) and Balkans (1913) Led to the First World War (1914-1918) Ended because of Allied attack on Germany in Sept, 1918. </li> <li> 22. Triggered by the German assault on Poland (1940) They overran the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France France signed an armistice with Hitler British felt betrayed and sought US-help </li> <li> 23. Japan, Italy and Germany formed the Axis Russians, British and Americans formed the Allied forces The allied forces succeeded in the final years of the war (1944-1945) On 30 April 1945 Hitler committed suicide Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945 </li> <li> 24. Lost of lives was massive. Not all the dead were soldiers. Many civilians, Jews, women and children were also killed. War is unjustified! </li> </ul>