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  • Introduction to Biology

    Chapter 1

  • Biology is the study of LIFE!

  • Big Ideas in AP Biology Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity

    and unity of life.

    Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

    Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

    Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

  • Themes in the Study of Life

    1. Biological Hierarchy 1. Atom

    2. Molecule -> macromolecule

    3. Cells

    4. Tissue

    5. Organ & organ system

    6. Organism

    7. Population

    8. Community

    9. Ecosystem (biomes)

    10. Biosphere

  • 2. Organisms interact with other organisms & environment

  • 3. Life requires energy transfer

  • 4. Structure dictates Function (Form fits function)

  • 5. The Cell = Basic unit

  • 6. Continuity of life is based on heritable information

  • 7. Feedback mechanisms

  • 8. Evolution accounts for unity and diversity of life

  • Taxonomy: classification of organisms

  • Three Domains of Life

    1. Bacteria

    2. Archaea

    3. Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi)

  • What is Science?

    Science = Latin to know

    Inquiry is at the heart of science. Inquiry: search for information and


    Two main processes: 1. Discovery science 2. Hypothesis-based science

  • Discovery Science

    Describes nature through observation and analysis of data

    Data = recorded observations

    Qualitative and quantitative

    Inductive reasoning: derive generalizations based on specific observations

    specific general

  • Hypothesis-Based Science

    Hypothesis: makes predictions that can be tested by recording more observations or experiments

    Deductive reasoning (general specific)

    If , then

    Predict outcomes of experiments if hypothesis is correct

  • The Myth of the Scientific Method

    Published research articles follow the steps of the textbook scientific method

    Most scientific inquiries dont follow this structured form

    Scientists can be working with the wrong hypothesis and have to redirect research

    Discovery science - contributes to understanding of nature without using the scientific method

  • Experiments

    Hypothesis (If , then ...)

    Use control and experimental groups

    Independent Variable what is manipulated/changed in the experiment

    Dependent Variable what is measured

    If [independent variable], then [dependent variable].

  • Hypothesis / Theory / Law

    Hypothesis Explanation to specific



    Educated guess

    Tested by experiment or continued observation

    Can be disproven, but not cant proven to be true

    Theory Summarizes group of

    hypothesis supported by repeated testing

    Broader in scope

    New hypotheses can be generated from it

    Supported by massive body of evidence

    Scientific Law Statement of fact

    Explains things, but doesnt describe them

    Generally accepted to be true and universal

    Basis for scientific method


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