introducing neuropsychology

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Author: John Sterling

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  • Introducing Neuropsychology investigates the functions of the brain and exploresthe relationships between brain systems and human behaviour. It draws on bothestablished ndings and cutting edge research. The material is presented in ajargon-free, easy to understand manner and aims to guide students new to theeld through current areas of research. John Stirlings Introducing Neuro-psychology not only covers brain function but gives clinical examples of whathappens when different brain regions are damaged.

    The text deals rst with the basics of neuropsychology, discussing thestructures of the central nervous system and methods of research used inneuropsychology. The book covers sensory function, the lateralised nature of thebrain and motor control and movement disorders. The author then looks athigher order cortical functions, with chapters on language, memory and amnesia,visual object recognition and spatial processing and attention. A further chaptercovers executive functions and describes some psychiatric disorders resulting fromdysfunction.

    With over 80 illustrations, John Stirling has provided a user-friendly text-book that will be essential reading for those studying neuropsychology withinthe disciplines of psychology, medicine, clinical psychology and neuroscience.

    John Stirling is a Reader in Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University.He specialises in neuropsychology. He is the author of two previous books,Psychopathology (1999), co-written with Jonathan Hellewell, and CorticalFunctions (1999), both published in the Routledge Modular Psychology series,and has also written/co-written numerous journal articles in the areas ofneuropsychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry.

    Introducing Neuropsychology

  • Psychology FocusSeries editor: Perry Hinton, University of Luton

    The Psychology Focus series provides students with a new focus on key topic areas inpsychology. It supports students taking modules in psychology, whether for a psychology degreeor a combined programme, and those renewing their qualication in a related discipline. Eachshort book:

    presents clear, in-depth coverage of a discrete area with many applied examples assumes no prior knowledge of psychology has been written by an experienced teacher has chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary of key terms.

    Also available in this series:

    Friendship in Childhood and AdolescencePhil Erwin

    Gender and Social PsychologyVivien Burr

    Jobs, Technology and PeopleNik Chmiel

    Learning and StudyingJames Hartley

    Personality: A Cognitive ApproachJo Brunas-Wagstaff

    Intelligence and AbilitiesColin Cooper

    Stress, Cognition and HealthTony Cassidy

    Types of ThinkingS. Ian Robertson

    Psychobiology of Human MotivationHugh Wagner

    Stereotypes, Cognition and CulturePerry R. Hinton

    Psychology and Human NaturePeter Ashworth

    Abnormal PsychologyAlan Carr

    Attitudes and PersuasionPhil Erwin

    The Person in Social PsychologyVivien Burr

  • IntroducingNeuropsychology

    John Stirling

  • First published 2002by Psychology Press27 Church Road, Hove, East Sussex, BN3 2FAwww.psypress.co.uk

    Simultaneously published in the USA andCanadaby Taylor & Francis Inc.29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

    Psychology Press is a member of the Taylor& Francis Group

    2002 John Stirling

    Cover design and illustration by Terry Foley

    All rights reserved. No part of this book maybe reprinted or reproduced or utilised in anyform or by any electronic, mechanical, orother means, now known or hereafterinvented, including photocopying andrecording, or in any information storage orretrieval system, without permission inwriting from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in PublicationDataA catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the Library of Congress

    ISBN 0415227593 (pbk)ISBN 0415227585 (hbk)

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis

    To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledgesthousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    e-Library, 2005.

    collection of

    ISBN 0-203-99085-4 Master e-book ISBN

  • Into the highlands of the mind let me go

    (Adapted from a poem entitled Shakespeare from A Hundred Poems by Sir William Watson, Selected From His Various Volumes, NY: Dodd Mead & Co., 1923.)

  • Conte

    nts

    Contents

    List of illustrations ix

    Series preface xiii

    Preface xv

    Acknowledgements xvii

    1 The beginnings of neuropsychology 1

    2 Methods in neuropsychology 13

    3 Lateralisation 31

    4 Somatosensation 53

    5 Motor control and movement disorders 73

    6 Language and the brain 103

    7 Memory and amnesia 129

    v i i

  • 8 Visual object recognition and spatial processing 153

    9 Attention 181

    10 Executive functions 207

    11 Summary and concluding thoughts 227

    Appendix 235

    Further reading 253

    Selected neuropsychology web sites 257

    Glossary 259

    References 265

    Index 283

    C O N T E N T S

    v i i i

  • i x

    Illustra

    tions

    Illustrations

    Figures

    1.1 A phrenology skull 51.2 Some language areas in the brain 82.1 Brodmanns cortical areas 162.2 Recording of EEG and ERPs 192.3 Diagram of CT, MRI and PET 212.4 A fMRI scan 222.5 (a) Corsis block-tapping test and

    (b) the Wisconsin card sort test 263.1 Externally visible structural asymmetries

    of the human brain 343.2 The corpus callosum 353.3 Visual pathway from eye to brain 363.4 A typical split-brain experiment with objects

    and words 383.5 Summary of Levy et al.s (1972) split-brain

    study 403.6 Figures similar to those used by Delis et al.

    (1986) 444.1 The process of sensory transduction 564.2 The somatosensory pathways 584.3 The somatosensory cortex and sensory

    homunculus 60

  • 4.4 A detailed view of the primary somatosensory strip (S1) 614.5 Woolseys whisker barrel study 634.6 Summary of Mogilner et al.s (1993) study 644.7 Referred phantom experiences from facial stimulation 664.8 Ramachandrans explanation of phantom limb experiences 674.9 Basbaum and Fields (1984) model of pain modulation 705.1 Descending movement control pathways 765.2 The cerebellum and its connections 805.3 Components and connections of the basal ganglia 825.4 Direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways 835.5 The basal ganglia as a facilitator/inhibitor of action plans 845.6 Hierarchical organisation of movement in the frontal lobes 875.7 Ideational apraxia 906.1 Connectionist models of language 1066.2 Lichtheims model of connectivity serving language functions 1116.3 Left hemisphere areas involved in syntactic processing 1196.4 The location of the superior tip of the insula (on the left) 1247.1 Psychological models of memory 1327.2 The key components in Baddeleys model of working memory 1347.3 The subdivisions of long-term memory 1367.4 HMs retrograde and anterograde amnesia 1387.5 Goldman-Rakics study of spatial working memory in monkeys 1457.6 Subdivisions of long-term memory indicating possible anatomical

    substrates of different components 1508.1 The what and where streams of visual perception 1558.2 Pohls double-dissociation study of landmark and object

    discrimination in macaques 1568.3 Cortical regions typically damaged in apperceptive and associative

    agnosia 1618.4 Unusual views of objects, and items from the Gollin test 1638.5 Ellis and Youngs model of visual object recognition 1658.6 A view of ventral regions involved in object and face recognition 1718.7 Rey-Osterreith gure and WAIS blocks test, and patients attempts

    to complete these tests 1769.1 A typical dichotic listening experiment 1849.2 Two ltering models of attention 1859.3 The type of array used in visual search studies 1869.4 An illustration of Posners (1980) study 1879.5 Auditory ERPs to attended and non-attended stimuli 1909.6 Early and late components of an auditory ERP 1919.7 Brain structures and attention 1959.8 Typical responses of hemineglect patients in drawing tasks 198

    I L L U S T R A T I O N S

    x

  • 9.9 An illustration of the effects of hemineglect on spatial attention 2009.10 The sort of picture/story stimulus used by Farah 2019.11 LaBerges triangular circuit of attention 20410.1 A control subjects and frontal patients attempts at the

    memory for designs test 21010.2 Typical responses in the WCST 21210.3 The Tower of London test 21510.4 Norman and Shallices supervisory attentional system 220A1 The lobes of the cortex 236A2 A neuron (a) and glia (b) 238A3 A neuron conveying a volley of nerve impulses, and a schematic

    synapse 239A4 The convergence of an excitatory and inhibitory input on to a

    receiving neuron 242A5 A medial sagittal view of the adult human brain 245A6 The corpus callosum 247A7 The layers of the cortex and a pyramidal neuron 248

    Tables

    2.1 A single and a double dissociation experiment 283.1 Anatomical hemispheric asymmetries 336.1 The underlying difculties of ve anomic patients 1168.1 The results of Farahs meta-analysis of the co-occurrence of

    prosopagnosia, visual agnosia and alexia 170

    I L L U S T R A T I O N S

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  • x i i

  • x i i i

    Serie

    s pre

    face

    Series preface

    The Psychology Focus series provides short, up-to-dateaccounts of key areas in psychology without assuming thereaders prior knowledge in the subject. Psychology isoften a favoured subject area for study, because it is rele-vant to a wide range of disciplines