Intelligent systems, intelligent agents

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New AI directions: cognitive and applications Advantages: adaptable, flexible, able to learn, user-friendly, bluff intelligence. A typical agent: insurance agent (M. Minsky); many users Other types of agents: art. life, static-mobile, distributed, for people or computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Intelligent systems, intelligent agents New AI directions: cognitive and applicationsAdvantages: adaptable, flexible, able to learn, user-friendly, bluff intelligence A typical agent: insurance agent (M. Minsky); many usersOther types of agents: art. life, static-mobile, distributed, for people or computersIntelligent information society</p></li><li><p>INTELLIGENT AGENTSExamplesInternet - filtering, browsing, e-commerce, .... : PC - system agents, OfficeHundreds of agents, more important agent approach = more advanced, more powerful, more modern</p></li><li><p> Definition of intelligent agent No reasonable definition of intelligence - no theoretical definition of intelligence succeeded (empirically failed) - intelligence might be a stronger (non-computational) conceptNo reasonable definition of intelligent agentsHumans capable of easily distinguishing between (non)intelligent subjects, and between agents and non-agents</p></li><li><p> What are agents? Diverse and complex types of agents (most important are common principles)Diverse and complex application domainsInternal structure is not essential (although usual AI-based)Outside performance is important (like expert systems)No reasonable definition of intelligent agentsHumans capable of distinguishing between agents and non-agents, and the power and amount of agentness</p></li><li><p>Properties of intelligent agentsautonomy - ability to perform tasks and decisions without direct intervention of humanssocial ability, ability to interact with humans and agentsresponsiveness, the ability to perceive the environment and respond to changes</p></li><li><p> proactiveness, the ability to take initiative and to exhibit goal-directed behavioradaptability, the ability of an agent to modify its behaviormobility, the ability to change physical locationveracity, assumption of no false informationrationality, ability to perform reasonably</p></li><li><p>Properties - Pattie MaesObserves a user Gets feed-back from a user Gets direct instructions from a userGets experience from environmentAgent and user communicate, control, executeAgent learns according to interests, wishes and desires of users</p></li><li><p>Properties - EtzioniAutonomy when executing tasks; gets task descriptions from a user, modifies it, performs it on its ownTime continuous work all the time Personality - speak too much Able to communicateTo adapt to each single user personalizationMobility</p></li><li><p>Simple rulesdoes it perform typical user-oriented functions (insurance agent)autonomy - performs actions on its own (yes) - is prediction of actions possible (no)adapts to each specific user - different reactions for the same errorworks all the time, looks around (mobile)data - information - knowledge </p></li><li><p>Properties - summaryGeneral, not exact definitions - ideal agent theoretical, nonexistent real agents only approximations with some properties - borders soft, not exactAgent is a (slightly) different programSimilar relations: non/structured programming; modular/object; information systems/operation systems/expert systems; data/information/knowledge some people dont understand the difference</p></li><li><p>Types of agents - EtzioniCo-drivers suggest where to go to Drivers listen to suggestions by users Secretary-assistant, gets strategic directions and performs actions on its own</p></li><li><p> Typology of agents </p></li><li><p> Typology of agents </p></li><li><p>Types of agents simple reflex agents condition-action, pattern-basedmodel-based reflex agents + model of the world (partial)goal-based agents + goals (desired states, boolean)utility-based agents + utilitylearning agents + learn</p></li><li><p>Types of agents Decision Agents Input Agents Processing Agents Spatial Agents (physical real-world)Believable agents (artif. character)Physical Agents (e.g. robot)Temporal Agents </p></li><li><p>Types of agent environments More complex Observable - Partially observable Deterministic - Stochastic Episodic - Sequential Static - Dynamic Discrete - Continuous Single-agent Multiple-agent </p></li><li><p>*MASMulti-agent Systems (MAS)A MAS is one that consists of a number of agents, which interact with one-anotherIn the most general case, agents will be acting on behalf of users with different goals and motivationsTo successfully interact, they will require the ability to interact with each other, much as people doCan you think of an example?</p></li><li><p>*MASMulti-agent Systems (MAS)Autonomous software agents Local viewDecentralizationSelf-organizedOften use Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (KQML) or FIPA's Agent Communication Language (ACL)</p></li><li><p>*MAS STUDIESagent-oriented software engineeringbeliefs, desires, and intentions (BDI)cooperation and coordinationorganisationcommunicationnegotiationdistributed problem solvingmulti-agent learningscientific communitiesdependability and fault-tolerance</p></li><li><p>*MAS FRAMEWORKSJade (Java)Repast (Java)Swarm (Objective-C)NetLogo (Logo)MASON (Java)SemanticAgent (SWRL) on top of JADE Wikipedia</p></li><li><p> Bill Gates .. computer of the future - an intelligent computer assistant, a kind of secretary, capable of communicating and executing simple mundane tasks. The new system will be capable of talking, listening, seeing, and will have other anthropological features like faces capable of expressing gestures.(agents are the right direction) </p></li><li><p> Truly intelligent? Intelligent systems!</p></li><li><p>First Slovenian agents1993 IOI, interface VAX/VMS; B. Hribovek, M. Gams1996 EMA, an employment agent for Slovenia on Internet, M. Gams, A. Karali National Employment Office1998 Personal WebWatcher, D. Mladeni2000 ShiNa, A. Pivk2000 ActiveTools, USA, A. Bezek2007 MASDA, A. Bezek</p></li><li><p>CONCLUSIONIntelligent agents are among the most prospective new SW breeds; Intelligent agents represents a marriage between AI, intelligent systems, and information society</p><p>***</p></li></ul>