Inorganic Chemistry 1

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<p>INORGANIC CHEMISTRY I(3 credit semester hours )</p> <p>Created by Dra.Hj. Bayharti, MSc Miftahul Khair,S.Si, MSc Dra. Andromeda, MSi</p> <p>CHEMISTRY DEPT. FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND SCIENCES STATE UNIVERSITY OF PADANG</p> <p></p> <p>Contents</p> <p> - Introduction to inorganic chemistry. - Atomic structure, development of atomic theory especially in atomic model of wave mechanics, electron configuration. - Periodical Table, Effective atomic Charge and relation of that with periodical properties, periodical properties of the elements. -Ionic compound, formation of ionic compound, lattice energy, Born Haber cycle, ionic radii and properties of ionic compounds</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p> - Covalent compound, properties, octet rule, resonance, formal charge, dipole moment, VBT and MOT Theory. -Molecular structure, VSEPR and hybrid. - Coordination Compound, introduction, nomenclature, coordination number, ligands, theory of coordination ( VBT and CFT )Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>References Miessler, G.L. and Tarr, D.A., (1999), Inorganic Chemistry, Prentice-Hall International, Inc, London Manku, G.S. (1980), Theoretical Principles of Inorganic Chemistry, Tata-McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. Gilreath,E.S., (1963), Fundamental Concepts of Inorganic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Tokyo. Huheey, J. E., Keiter, E. A. and Keiter, R. L., (1993), Inorganic Chemistry (Principles of Structure and Reactivity), Ed. 4., Harper Collins College Publishers</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Lecture 1 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>What is Inorganic Chemistry ?</p> <p>1. If organic chemistry is defined as the chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds and their) derivatives, inorganic chemistry can be described broadly as the chemistry of "every- thing else." This includes all the remaining elements in the periodic table, as well as carbon, which plays a major role in many inorganic compounds. (Gary L. Miessler and Donalt A. Tarr in Inorganic Chemistry</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Inorganic Chemistry is any phase of chemistry of interest to inorganic chemist (James E. Huheey in Inorganic Chemistry., principle of structure and reactivity. This mean that matter of inorganic chemistry is broad and overlap with other chemistry discipline Inorganic Chemistry is the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of the properties and reactions of all elements and their compounds except the hydrocarbons and most of their derivatives (T. MoellerJurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Contras with organic Chemistry</p> <p>Some comparison between organic and inorganic chemistry are in order 1. Number of bonds 2. Kind of bonds 3. Location of hydrogen and alkyl 4. Geometry of compound 5. Number of elements</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Number of bonds</p> <p>Jurusan Kimia</p> <p>Chemistry Department</p> <p>Both organic and Inorganic chemistry have a single and triple bond</p> <p>Kind of bond</p> <p>Organic chemistry has sigma and phi bond, inorganic chemistry has sigma, phi and delta bonds, because metal atom has d orbitalJurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Location of hydrogen</p> <p>In organic compound, hydrogen is nearly bonded to single carbon. In organic compound, especially encountered as a bridging atom between two or more others atoms. Alkyl groups Jurusan Kimia may also act as bridges in inorganic compoundsChemistry Department</p> <p>Coordination number and geometry</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Carbon is usually limited to a maximum coordination number of four (a maximum of four atoms bonded to carbon, as in CH4) and the arrangement geometry is tetrahedral Inorganic compounds have coordination number of two, three, four, five, seven and more are very common. The common coordination geometry is an octahedral arrangement around the central atom as show TiF4-</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Number of element Organic compound has hydrocarbon compound and their derivates; H, N, S, O, P, X and may be Sc and Mg. Inorganic compound is the chemistry of everything else, and the elements and their compounds except hydrocarbon and their derivates</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>PROBLEMS 1. Compare the number of element between organic and inorganic compound 2. Compare the number of bond, geometry of compound between organic and inorganic chemistry 3. Is inorganic chemistry contrast with organic chemistry? Explain your reason!</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>THE HYSTORY OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRYEven before alchemy became a subject of study, many reactions were used and the product applied in daily life. Example: First metal used were probabli gold, copper that can be found in metallic state In 3000 B.C. silver, tin, antimony, lead were known In 1500 B.C. Iron appear in classical great arround mediteraninan also four colored glass, ceramic glass At the first centuries AP, chemistry were active in chine and egypt. The triad to tranmute nbase metal into gold 1500 AD chemistry reappeared in europe</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>1600 AD, chemistry appeared in art Roger Bacon (114-194) recognized as one of the first great experimental scientist By the 17th centuries: found the common strong acid (Chloride acid, Sulfuric acid, and nitric acid) 1869, Becquerel discovered radioactivity 1913 Bohr atomic theory 1926 quantum mechanics of Schrodinger on Heisenberg 1940s, a great expansion of inorganic chemistry 19050s describe the spectra of metal ion, CFT and LFT in coordination compound 1955 discovered organometallic compound</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>GENESIS OF THE ELEMENT (THE BIG BANG THEORY) AND FORMATION OF THE EARTHAccording to the big bang theory, the universe began about 1.8 X lo1' years ago with an extreme concentration of energy in a very small space. In fact, extrapolation back to the time of origin requires zero volume and infinite temperature. Whether this is true or not is still a source of argument, What is almost universally agreed on is that the universe is expanding rapidly, from an initial event during which neutrons were formed and decayed quickly (half-life = 11.3 min) into protons, electrons, and antineutrinos: n p+eJurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Lecture II ATOMIC STRUCTURE</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Development of atomic model John Dalton theory Model atom of Thomson Model atom Rutherford Model atom of Niels Bohr Model of mechanic wave</p> <p>JOHN DALTONThe ultimate particle of homogeneous bodies are pereftly alite in weight figure etc. In other word every particle of water is like every other paticle of water, every particle of hydrogen is like every other paticle of hydrogen, etc. Atom of differen element has different weight, volume, and propertes</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>MODEL ATOM OF THOMSONAn atom is a uniform sphere of positive electricity with a radius about 10-8 cm with the electrons embedded in this sphere in such way to give the must stable electrostatic arrangement.</p> <p>MODEL ATOM OF RUTHERFORDFrom the experiment of a small fraction of alpha particles where deflected a large angels on passing trough god foil, while most of them passed directly through. It means atom has much empty space and heavy, tiny nucleus carrying a positive charge. Electrons goes around a nucleus in far distanceJurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>As the electrons drop from level nh to nl (h for higher level, 1 for lower</p> <p>level), energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Conversely, if radiation of the correct energy is absorbed by an atom, electrons are raised from level nl to level nh. The</p> <p>inverse-square dependence of energy on nl resultsJurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>in energy levels that are far apart in energy at small nl and become much</p> <p>Parallel discoveries in atomic spectra showed that each element emits light of specific energies when excited by an electric discharge or heat. In 1885, Balmer showed that the energies of visible light emitted by the hydrogen atom are given by the equation E = RH (1/ni 1 Where nh = integer, with nh &gt; 2</p> <p>RH = Rydberg constant for hydrogen = 1.097 X lo7 m-' = 2.179 X 10-18J and the energy is related to thewavelength, frequency, and wave number of the light, as given by the equation</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>E =hv = hc/ = hcv where h = Planck's constant = 6.626 X J s v = frequency of the light, in s-I c = speed of light = 2.998 X 10' m s-'</p> <p>h = wavelength of the light, frequently in nmv = wave number of the light, usually in cm-I The Balmer equation was later made more general, as spectral lines in the ultraviolet and infrared regions of the spectrum were discovered, by replacing 22 by nf,</p> <p>with thecondition that nl &lt; nh . These quantities, ni, are called</p> <p>quantum numbers. numbers.Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>MODEL ATOM OF NIELSBOHRThis theory assumed that negative electrons in atoms move in stable circular orbits around the positive nucleus with no absorption or emission of energy. However, electrons may absorb light of certain specific energies and be excited to orbits of higher energy; they may also emit light of specific energies and fall to orbits of lower energy.</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Model atom of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, nielsbohr and mechanic wave</p> <p>Lecture 3 MODEL ATOM OF MECHANIC WAVE</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>When applied to hydrogen, Bohr's theory worked well; when atoms with more electrons were considered, the theory failed. Complications such as elliptical rather than circular orbits were introduced in an attempt to fit the data to Bohr's theory.' The developing experimental science of atomic spectroscopy provided extensive data for testing of the Bohr theory and its modifications and forced the theorists to work hard to explain the spectroscopists' observations. In spite of their efforts, the Bohr theory eventually proved unsatisfactory; the energy levels shown in Figure are valid only for the hydrogen atom. An important characteristic of the electron, its wave nature, still needed to be considered.Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>According to the de Broglie equation,12 proposed in the 1920s, all moving particles have wave properties described by the equation = h / mv where</p> <p>h = wavelength of the particleh = Planck's constant</p> <p>m = mass of the particlev - velocity of thc particle Particles massive enough to be visible have very short avelengths, too small to be measured. Electrons, on the other hand, have wave properties because of their very Jurusan Kimia small mass. Chemistry Department</p> <p>Electrons moving in circles around the nucleus, as in Bohr's theory, can be thought of as forming standing waves that can be described by the de Broglie equation. However, we no longer believe that it is possible to describe the motion of an electron in an atom so precisely. This is a consequence of another fundamental principle of modern physics, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which states that there is a relationship between the inherent uncertainties in the location and momentum of an electron moving in the x direction: x px h / 4 where x= uncertainty in the position of the electron p, = uncertainty in the momentum of the electron Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>The energy of spectra lines can be measured with great precision , in turn allowing precise determination of the energy of electrons in atoms. This precision in energy also implies precision in momentum (Ap, is small); therefore, according to Heisenberg, there is a large uncertainty in the location of the electron ( x is large). These concepts mean that we cannot treat electrons as simple particles with their motion described precisely, but we must instead consider the wave properties of electrons, characterized by a degree of uncertainty in their location. In other words, instead of being able to describe precise orbits of electrons, as in the Bohr theory, we can only describe orbitals, regions that describe the probable location of electrons. The probability of finding the electron at a particular point in space (also called the electron density) can be calculated, at least in principle.Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>THE SCHRODINGER EQUATIONThe Schrodinger equation describes the wave properties of an electron in terms of its position, mass, total energy, and potential energy. The equation is based on the wavefunction, 9, which</p> <p>describes an electron wave in space; in other words, it describes anatomic orbital. In its simplest H = Enotation, the equation is Where H = the Hamiltonian operator E = energy of the electron = the wave function</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>The Hamiltonian operator (frequently just called the Hamiltonian) includes derivatives that operate on the wave function." When the Hamiltonian is carried out, the result is a constant (the energy) times . The operation can be performed on any wave function describing an atomic orbital. Different orbitals have different functions and different values of E. This is another way of describing quantization in that each orbital, characterized by its own function, has a characteristic energy. Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Because every psi matches an atomic orbital, there is no limit to the number of solutions of the Schrodinger equation for an atom. Each psi describes the wave properties of a given electron in a particular orbital. The probability of finding an electron at a given point in space is proportional to psi2. A number of conditions are required for a physically realistic solution for psy .Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>Jurusan KimiaChemistry Department</p> <p>The Schrodinger equation A more detailed look at the Schrodinger equation shows the mathematical origin of atomic orbitals. In three dimensions, T may be expressed in terms of Cartesian coordinates</p> <p>( x , y, z ) or in terms of spherical coordinates (r, 0, +). Spherical coordinates, as shown in , are especially useful in that r represents the distance from the nucleus. The spherical coordinate 0 is the angle from the z axis, varying from 0 to n , and 4 is the angle from the x axis, varying from 0 to 2n. It is possible to convert betweenCartesian and spherical coordinates using the following expressions:</p> <p>x = r sin 0 cos + y=r Jurusan Kimia sin 0 sin + Chemistry Department z = r cos 0</p> <p>The angular functions The angular functions and determine how the probability changes from point to point at a given distance from the center of the atom; in other words, they give the shape of the orbitals and their orientation in space. The angular functions and are determined by the quantum numbers 1 and ml. The shapes of s, p, and d</p> <p>orbitals are given.The radial functions The radial factor R(r) is determined by the quantum numbers n and 1,...</p>