initial screening mana 5341 dr. george benson benson@uta.edu

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  • Initial Screening MANA 5341Dr. George Bensonbenson@uta.edu

  • Selection MechanismsPersonality testsPhysical ability testsJob knowledge testsWork sample testsSimulatorsSituational interviewsUnstructured interviewsAssessment centersRecommendationsMany others..

    ApplicationsResumesBiographical informationBackground investigationsChecking referencesCredit reportsPolygraph testsHonesty testsGraphologyDrug testingCognitive ability tests

  • Why Use Selection Tests?

  • Why Use Selection Tests?Individual judgment is poor and inconsistentPerceptual biasesIndividual biasesMatch applicant KSAs with job requirements

    Ensure that new hires will perform well on the job.

  • Selection BiasWhite Sounding NamesThe professors at U. of Chicago and MIT sent about 5,000 resumes in response to want ads in The Boston Globe and Chicago Tribune.

    White" names received 1 response for every 10 resumes mailed, while "black" applicants with equal credentials received 1 response for every 15.

    Texas Accents YallStudy by U. of North Texas researchers has found that Texas hiring managers look favorably on applicants with pronounced Texas accents.

    Speakers from California and Minnesota, whose regional accents are less distinguishable, generally do better with managers all across the country.

  • Choosing Selection MethodsMultiple factors need to be considered.

    Specificity of skills requiredRisk of bad hire or mistakes made by employeesEmployee reactions

    Level of adverse impact

    CostAdministration timeScreening-in vs. Screening out methods

  • Developing A Selection PlanList each of the KSAs required for the jobDoes it need to be assessed?What are the minimum qualifications?List potential selection mechanisms for those KSAs that need to be assessed along with costs and benefits.Validity and reliability$$$ CostsLevel of adverse impact Detail the selection sequence Data to be collected at each pointCriteria to be used to move applicants through the sequence

  • Most Common MethodsApplicationReference checksInterviewEducation levelTraining and experienceResumesLicensing and certificationPersonality testingBiodataAssessment Centers

  • Methods and Applicant FlowApplicantsCandidatesFinalistsOffersHires

    Initial Substantive Discretionary Contingent

  • Initial SelectionInitial SelectionApplication FormsResumesReference Checks

    Initial / ContingentBackground ChecksDrug Tests

  • Application FormsOnly ask info related to job KSAsLink to job performance Use thorough job analysis and validation techniquesConsider potential adverse impactUse knockout questions

    Careful collecting personal characteristicsRace, National Origin, Gender, Age etc.Law assumes all questions are used in hiringMore is not necessarily betterRules differ state to state

    Different applications for different jobsProvide Instructions and DisclaimersNot particularly valid (r = .10 - .20)

  • Application FormsHow to ask non-discriminatory questions?You are always permitted to ask if applicant is qualified and able to perform primary job duties.You should never ask questions that indicate protected class status.Allow people to self-select as much as possible.

    What if you need to collect demographic information for EEO purposes?Race, National Origin, Gender, Age etc

  • How to askDo you have child-care for your children?Do you own a car?How old are you?Do you have a physical or mental disability? Height? Weight? What is your maiden name?Are you a U.S. citizen?Have you every been arrested?Do you smoke or use tobacco?

  • ResumesApplicant controls the informationMany examples of fraud or omissionUp to 50% contain some inaccuracyWhat are possible indicators of resume fraud?

    Jobs and education should be verifiedOne question honesty test

    Requirements for education and experiences should be job-related.

  • Potential ProblemsAP May 11, 2004 WASHINGTONAt least 28 senior-level federal employees in eight agencies have bogus college degrees, including three managers at the office that oversees nuclear weapons safety, congressional investigators have found.

    MSNBC June 24, 2004 WASHINGTONMore than 100 federal air marshals have been fired or stripped of their flight status in recent weeks for problems stemming from their security clearance background investigations

  • Potential ProblemsNY Times Sept 12, 2005

    Ronald L. Zarrella, the chief executive of Bausch & Lomb, claimed to have had a master's in business administration from New York University. Shares in the company dropped 3 percent the day the company divulged Mr. Zarrella's resume-fudging.

    David J. Edmondson, the chief executive of RadioShack, was fired after a newspaper investigation showed that his resume was padded with two degrees in psychology and theology, degrees he never got from a university that was not even accredited.

    The Rutgers University Career Services office did an audit last year and found that 20 percent of students submitting resumes had inflated their grade-point averages.

  • Reference CheckingRelatively low reliability and predictive validityUsed primarily as a screening out mechanism80% - 95% of organizations attempt Two-thirds of organizations limit info they will share.Companies decline to report negative information to protect from defamation suit.What type of questions are more likely to get good responses?Should ask for applicant permissionFailure to conduct reference check may create negligent hiring liability.

  • Reference CheckingVerify resume or application informationEducationWork historyInformation on personality or characterMotivation and job performanceWillingness to rehire

  • Qualified PrivilegeAimed at protecting companies that provide good faith reference informationInformation must be given without malicious intentInformation can be substantiatedInformation given is limited to specific inquiryInformation must be given at proper time, through proper channels, with proper methods.

    Is the employee eligible for rehire?

  • Potential ProblemsFW Star-Telegram 2.12.04ARLINGTON - A University of Texas a Arlington official voiced regrets that a part-time lecturer's background was not checked after he talked about his personal life in class and alarmed students.Ronnie Robert Molina was fired after his first lecture on communications law. In August, Molina was fired as an attorney for Dallas for inappropriate behavior.

    Shorthorn 1.28.04Several students in the class said Molina spent the first day discussing a range of personal topics and that many in the class were appalled and disturbed.After arriving 25 minutes late, Molina started a monologue about religious values, sexual orientation and drug useStudents said Molina wrote the initials of the attorney that he previously worked for and distinguished his initials D.L., as devil and Lucifer.

  • Methods to Improve Initial SelectionHow can organizations encourage honesty in applications and resumes?

    Training and Experience Evaluations (Checklists)Holistic JudgmentPoint MethodTask-based and KSA-basedGrouping (high med low)Behavioral Consistency (tied to high performers)

    Weighted Applications

    Validity

  • Weighted Application Blanks

  • Developing WABsChoose criterionPerformance characteristics of the jobIdentify groupsTypically high performers and low performersSelect application items and response categoriesSelect characteristics that are relevant to performanceTest the relationship with performanceDetermine weights based on group differencesValidate weights using a holdout sampleSet cutoff scores based on validation results

  • Biodata InventoriesReliable Valid (r = .32 to .37)Series of questions on a wide variety of subjectsBackground (e.g. hobbies, jobs, and education)Situational questionsPersonality and Values

    Compared to a profile generated from successful employees or database for occupations.

  • Examples of Biographical QuestionsHow many jobs have you held in the last five years?Were you ever class president?Have you ever repaired a broken radio so that it later worked?While growing up, did you collect coins?When you were a teenager, how often did your father help you with schoolwork?About how many fiction books have you read in the past year?How many hours a week do you spend studying?By the time you were 18 had you traveled at least 500 miles from home by yourself?

  • Profile MatchingD2 = (P(ideal) P(applicant))2

    Develop a set of target or ideal scores by sampling high performers.For each item subtract the applicants scores from the ideal score and square the result.Sum the squares of the difference scores.Smaller D scores more closely resemble the ideal candidate.

  • Why use Biodata?

    Why not use Biodata?

  • Why use Biodata?Good predictor of behaviorTargets candidates similar to your best employees

    Why not use Biodata?Largely atheoretical approach to selection Social desirability responsesLegal challengesCan you profile your best performers?

  • Initial / Contingent AssessmentBackground ChecksCriminal recordState and federal recordsSex offender databasesCredit check Consent requiredFair Credit Reporting Act (the "FCRA") requires notification

    Drug Tests

  • Criminal History ChecksEmployers can obtain criminal background information by: (1) Asking applicants for certain information during the interview process or on a job application(2) Obtaining criminal record information from a state agency (with the consent of the applicants)(3) by hiring an investigator or security firm

    Before the information is gathered, employers should have specif