Immunity on the cutting edge between food and pharma

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  • Keywords: Phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarine, Statins,Cholesterol, Effectiveness

    Reference1. Demonty, I., Ras, R., van der Knaap, H., et al., 2009. Continuous

    dose-response relationship of the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effectof phytosterol intake. J. Nutr. 139, 271284.

    doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.204

    Effect of oral dose of conglycinin alone and combined withfenofibrate or rosuvastatin in rats fed a high-cholesterol dietE. Ferreira, M. Silva, A. Demonte, V. Neves

    So Paulo State University UNESP, BrazilE-mail address: ederlan.ferreira@bol.com.br (E. Ferreira)

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of conglycinin alone and com-bined with fenofibrate or rosuvastatin was observed. Protein anddrug were administered orally for 28 days in rats submitted to ahypercholesterolemic diet. Sixty-three rats were divided in sevengroups: standard (STD; casein), high cholesterol (HC, STD plus 1%cholesterol and 0.5% of cholic acid), HC+conglycinin (HC+7S,300 mg/body weight/day), HC+fenofibrate (HC+FF, 30 mg/bodyweight/day), HC+rosuvastatin (HC+RV, 10 mg/body weight/day),HC+7S+FF and HC+7S+RV. At the end of the treatment, foodconsumption, weight gain, feeding efficiency ratio and fecalexcretion of the rats groups were not significantly different.Conglycinin group have decreased total cholesterol (TC) andtriacylglycerols (TG) plasma levels in 22.9 and 34.8%, and hepaticTC and TG in 20.9 and 14.8% respectively. The fenofibrate alsoreduced the plasma levels of TC (35.8%) and TG (45.7%), however ithas increased the hepatic TC and TG (32.3 and 5.4%, respectively),while rosuvastatin reduced TC and TG plasma (18.1 and 7.6%), andhepatic TC and TG (38.3 and 27.3%). The simultaneous administra-tion of conglycinin and drugs (fenofibrate and rosuvastatin)showed no change in the hypocholesterolemic effect observedseparately. These results represent an evidence of reducing proper-ties of cholesterol and lipids in the plasma and liver in hyperch-olesterolemic rats by the soybean 7S protein as compared withhypolipidemic drugs. However, the combination proteindrug didnot change the parameters for the treated groups.

    Keywords: Soybean, Conglycinin, Fenofibrate and rosusvatatin,Hypocholesterolemic effect

    doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.205

    Immunity on the cutting edge between food and pharmaP.C. Calder

    University of Southampton, UKE-mail address: ppc@soton.ac.uk

    The immune system acts to protect the host from invadingpathogens and from noxious environmental agents. It involves manycell types and numerous cellular interactions, often involvingchemical mediators. Having a functional immune system is vital forlife and immunocompromised individuals are at increased risk ofmorbidity and mortality from infections. Nutrition plays many criticalroles in supporting the immune response, being a source of energy,building blocks, signaling agents, and regulators. Indeed, under-nourished individuals have a poorly functioning immune response

    and an increased susceptibility to infections. These impairments inimmunity and host defense can be corrected by improving nutritionalstate. It is estimated that 50% of global deaths are attributable toundernutrition and probably more than half of these involveinfections. Thus the potential for improved nutrition, acting throughimproved immunity, to reduce infectious morbidity and mortality isenormous. As well as being involved in host defense, the immunesystem is involved in disease and adverse outcome in somesituations, including autoimmune disorders, allergic disease, chroniclow grade inflammatory disorders, and overzealous inflammatoryresponses to injury and trauma. Here nutrition can play a modulatingrole that can translate to clinical improvement and better patientoutcome. This has been well studied with regard to marine omega-3fatty acids (O3FA). O3FA act to suppress metabolism of arachidonicacid to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, a classic target for anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. O3FA also give rise to potent anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators termed resol-vins and protectins. Through other mechanisms O3FA decreaseactivation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFB. Thus,O3FA are potent nutraceuticals that target inflammatory processesand so have potential for use in many clinical settings.

    doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.206

    Probiotics and gut health Is food passing pharma?R.J.M. Brummer

    rebro University, SwedenE-mail address: robert.brummer@oru.se

    Food compounds, its digestive products and microbiota are themain intraluminal constituents of the human intestine. The number ofmicrobiota in the human intestinal tract is ten-fold higher than thenumber of somatic cells in our body. Recent research has providedevidence thatmicrobegut interactions have a substantial and clinicallyrelevant impact on the development of the immune system and affectintestinal barrier function through life with consequences for theresistance to pathogenic bacteria, gut inflammation and abdominalcomplaints. This has major implications for the prevention and therapyof a variety of modern diseases like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS,inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and other non-intestinal disorderslike allergy and type-1 diabetes mellitus, all of which the incidence hasdramatically increased during the last decades and traditional pharma-cologic therapeutic approaches have shown severe weaknesses.

    Several putative mechanisms how intestinal microbiota andprobiotics can affect gut function will be discussed in this lecture.Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that certain aspects of brainfunction are affected by gut function, which in turn is affected by itsnutritional and microbial composition. Mechanisms of microbe-gut-brain signalling will be elucidated.

    This lecture will clarify the specific differences between apharmacological and nutritional/microbiological approach to tacklecommon disorders related to gut function and gut health and alsoclarify that the latter approach only has reached a very early stage ofmaturation.

    doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.207

    The taming of curcumin: Development and clinical validation ofa Meriva, a phospholipid complex of the golden pigmentof turmericG. Appendinoa,, S. Tognib, A. Giorib, G. Belcaroc

    Abstractse6

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